Introduction for BSCI202.docx

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Biological Sciences Program
BSCI 201
Justicia Opoku

Introduction for BSCI202 Stuff to know from BSCI201 Chapters 1-4 of your text Orientation of the human body, anatomical terms Basic Chemistry Cell structures and cellular organelles Tissue Types and tissue structures Body membranes The nervous system: neurons, neurotransmitters, ad action potentials, and neuromuscular junction The endocrine system: hormones and endocrine glands Muscles: both the physiology and anatomy, sliding filament theory Osmosis Mitosis/Meiosis Language of Anatomy Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstandings Review these terms and figures Exact terms are used for Position Direction Regions Structures Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy Study the structure and shape of the body and its parts Physiology Study of how the body and its parts work or functions both on a microscopic and macroscopic level Levels of Organization Cells – smallest living unit Tissues – collections of cells of the same type Organs – Collection of two or more types of tissues put together into structures that perform a specific function Organ Systems – collection of organs that work together to accomplish a task Primary cells/tissues classes Over 200 types of cells divided into 4 general categories Muscle – contraction of generation of force Connective – connect, anchor, support Epithelial – barrier between body and external environment; change Nerve – initiate, transmit electrical impulses. Body Fluid Compartments For 70 kg man, total body water = 42 liters 28 Liters intracellular fluid (ICF) 14 liters extracellular fluid (ECF) 3 liters plasma 11 liters interstitial fluid (ISF) Fluid that surrounds all of the body (liquid in blisters) All the extracellular fluid in the body except for plasma Organ Systems Cardiovascular Respiratory Urinary Gastrointestinal Reproduction Immune Immune and Lymphatic System Cleanses the Blood Returns fluid to the blood vessels Protects the body from pathogens “Housekeeping” Cardiovascular System Transport materials in the body via blood pumped by heart Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Nutrients Wastes Respiratory System Keeps blood supplied with oxygen Removes carbon dioxide Maintains blood/plasma pH Urinary System Eliminates Wastes Maintains acid-base balance Regulates water and electrolytes Reproductive System Produces offspring Not required for homeostasis. Digestive System Breaks down food Allows for nutrient absorption into blood Eliminates indigestible material Interrelationships among body systems to maintain homeostasis “Steady State” Homeostasis is a Central Organizing principle of Physiology Is the process of maintain a stable internal environment Homeostasis: steady State Stable body temperature Maintain blood plasma pH Maintain blood pressure/blood volume Maintain water balance/osmolarity Stable blood/sugar levels Body weight Most organ systems contribute to homeostasis Exception: reproductive system Negative Feedback Control is used in Homeostasis Negative Feedback Homeostasis is necessary for normal
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