Blood Notes.docx

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University of Maryland
Biological Sciences Program
BSCI 201
Justicia Opoku

Blood Blood The only fluid tissue in the human body Classified as a connective tissue Components of blood Living Cells called formed elements Erythrocytes = red blood cells transports oxygen and carbon dioxide Leukocytes – white blood cells the defend body against pathogens Platelets – cell fragments formed from megakaryocytes, important in blood clotting CYTES – means mature cells are leukocytes are mature white blood cells Non Living matrix: plasma is the fluid and solutes. Blood Hematocrit and Beyond When blood is centrifuged – Centrifuging separates substances by their weight. Erythrocytes sink to the bottom (45% of blood, a percentage known as the hematocrit) Buffy Coat contains leukocytes and platelets (less than 1% of blood), the buffy coat is a think, whitish layer between the erythrocytes and plasma. Plasma rises to the top (55% of blood) Average blood volume Women = 5.0L Men = 5.5L Blood coagulates so there needs to be a chemical that stops it from coagulates Hematocrit Diagnosis: Infection & Cancer:Alot of buffy Coat within a blood sample Anemia: Low erythrocytes (not 45%. Maybe 30%). Plasma: Constitution: Water – solvent for carrying other substances; absorbs heat Salts (electrolytes) Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate Osmotic balance, pH buggering, regulation of membrane permeability Plasma proteins Albumin – Osmotic Balance, pH Buffering Fibrinogen – clotting of blood -gen: means it isn’t activated (or turned on) yet. Globulins – defense (antibodies) and lipid transport. Substances transported by blood Nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins) Waste products of metabolism (urea, uric acid) Respiratory Cases (O2 and CO2) Hormones Body – just a sac of proteins that are differently expressed Famine in 3 world.Anorexia Kwashiorkor – they have a distended belly There is less then 300 MilliOsmolar/L Water leaves body and goes to the soft tissue in order to complete the correct MilliOsmolar. This makes the stomach enlarge. Physical Characteristics of Blood Blood is used as a vehicle of transport Color range Oxygen – rich blood is scarlet red Oxygen – poor blood is dull red pH is between 7.35-7.45 (7.4) Blood temperature is slightly higher than body temperature at 38 degrees (100.4 degrees F), it transfer heat throughout the body. Blood Plasma is ~ 90% Water 6=8% proteins which: increase osmotic pressure, buffer H+, increase blood viscosity, provide fuel during starvation 3 Major classes of Plasma proteins (synthesized in live, except some globulins synthesized by lymphocytes) Albumins: Major contributor to plasmas oncotic osmotic pressure and act as carriers Globulins: carriers, clotting factors, precursor proteins (angiotensinogen), immunoglobulins Fibrinogen: Blood Clotting Nutrients: Glucose, amino acids, lipids, vitamins Wastes: Urea, bilirubin, creatinine Gases Electrolytes (aka salts and ions) Relatively high concentrations of Na+ and Cl- Relatively low concentrations of H+, HCO3- K+ and CA2+ Short circuits all of one’s electrical systems. The body shuts down and dies. If you change the shape of a protein, Osmolarity changes. Salts, pH change the proteins. Hydrogen is so little so it can find proteins easily in order to change it’s shape, which then changes it’s function. Ringers Solution Asolution of distilled water containing electrolytes and compounds so that the same concentrations as their occurrences in body fluids. This solution is iso-osmotic to our blood pressure and tissues 280-300 milliosmoles per liter (we will use 300 mOsm/L Blood and tissue osmolarity must be equal to prevent net movements of fluids IV Drip If the IV drip bag only has water, then your body parts will swell If the IV Drip bag has too much nutrients then the body will lose water because blood is losing water through osmosis. Osmosis: Water (solvent) diffuses down it’s concentration gradient The link between water and salt Solute in the body include electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium ions Changes in the electrolytes balance causes water to move from one compartment to another which alters blood volume and blood pressure and can impair the activity of cells. Water moves from Low solute to high solute = high solvent to low solvent. Pure water has 0 solute present Water reabsorption follows solute reabsorption Blood Plasma Acidosis – blood becomes too acidic (less than 7.35) Alkalosis: blood becomes too basic (greater than 7.45) In each scenario, the respiratory system and kidneys help restore blood pH to normal Carbon Dioxide can dissolve in water ( blood plasma) and form carbonic acid CO2 + H2O H2CO3 (carbonicAcid H- + HCO3- Acid Base Balance Normal pH of arterial blood = 7.4 pH < 7.35 = acidosis pH> 7.45 = alkalosis Most ions originate as by-products of cellular metabolism Complications with acid-base disturbance Conformation change in protein structure Change in excitability of neurons Changes in balance of other ions Cardiac arrhythmias Vasodilation/Vasoconstriction Acids and Bases: Acids are Proton (H+) donors Strong acids dissociates completely and liberate all of their H+ in water Weak Acids, such as carbonic acid, dissociate only partially Bases are Proton (H+)Acceptors) Strong bases dissociate easily in water and tie up H+ Weak bases, such as bicarbonate ion and ammonia, are slower to accept H+ Cellular or Formed Element Platelets (cell fragments) DevelopmentalAspects of blood cells: Sites of blood cell formation The fetal liver and spleen are early sites of blood cell formation Bone marrow takes over hematopoiesis by the seventh month. Fetal hemoglobin differs from hemoglobin produced after birth, fetal hemoglobin has a gamma subunit in place of the beta subunit and higher affinity for oxygen Fetal babies have higher affinity so that when their RBCs get closer to the mother’s RBCs, it is able to take the oxygen. Physiological jaundice results when the liver cannot rid the body of hemoglobin breakdown products fast. Alcoholics Erythrocytes Main function is to carry oxygen Anatomy of circulating erythrocytes Biconcave disk – large surface area which favors diffusion. Essentially bags of hemoglobin Anucleate ( no nucleus) Contain very few organelles No mitochondria Use anaerobic glycolysis 5-6 billion RCS per L of blood Flexible membrane Allows it to fit into capillaries one at a time Also function to maintain osmolarity and blood/plasma pH If body has too much water, erythrocytes are able to swell or crenate so that they adjust for body’s water levels. Hemoglobin in RBCs Hb binds strongly (but reversibly) to oxygen 98.5% oxygen bound to HB and 1.5% dissolved in plasma Each hemoglobin molecule has 4 oxygen binding sites Globin + 4 heme groups = 4 polypeptides and heme = iron-containing group Iron containing protein Can also bind to CO2 and H+ (different binding sites.) Formation of Erthrycotes Mature RBCs are unable to divide, grow, or synthesize proteins. Wear out in 100-120 days When worn out RBCs are eliminated by phagocytes in the spleen or liver Lost cells are replaced by division of hemocytoplasts in the red bone marrow Iron is a component of hemoglobin Lost cells are replaced by division of hemocytoblasts in the red bone marrow. Control of Erythrocyte Production Rate is controlled by a hormone (erythropoietin) Kidneys produce most erythropoietin as a response to reduced oxygen levels in the blood Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback from blood oxygen levels. Control of the erythrocyte production If the oxygen drops to 60 mmHG (should be 100mmHG) Reduced levels of blood cells is sensed Kidneys releases Erythropoietin. Erythropoietin stimulates red bone marrow This then enhances erythropoiesis and more RBCs are created. This then increases the amount of oxygen carrying ability of blood Anemia: Decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood All anemia share the decrease I oxygen carrying capacity Dietary anemia Iron: iron-deficiency anemia Fixed with Iron Pills Pernicious – lack of Vitamin B12 Injections of B12 Hemorrhagic anemia: bleeding HemolyticAnemia Malaria or Sickle CellAnemia Sickle Cell Sickle Cells can clump and impede with blood flow Fixed with a no exercise lifestyle or drinking more water so that the cells swell and won’t clump as easily. Malaria: Those who have Both Sickle and Normal Cells are better off with malaria because Liver and Spleen work hard to get rid of Sickle Cells which happen to get rid of Malaria as well. Aplastic anemia – bone marrow defect Causes Anemia because it directly affects the amount of RBCs in the blood stream RenalAnemia – kidney disease Affects the Erythropoietin. Diseased Kidneys hinders the release of the hormone which creates less RBCs. Leukocytes White Blood Cells or WBCs) Crucial in the body’s defense against disease There are complete cells, with a nucleus and Organelles Able to move into and out of the blood vessels (diapedsis) Van move by amoeboid motion Can respond to chemicals released by damaged tissues (cytokines) Chemicals released by cells to communicated to one another 4000 – 11,000 WBC per cubic millimeter (microliter) of blood Types of Leukocytes Two Major Classes of Leukocytes Granulocytes Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained You need to stain WBCs in order to see them Posses lobed nuclei Include Neutrophils – stained with pH neutral substances Eosinophil – stained with pH acid substances Basophils – stained with pH basic substances Granules are enzymes (toxic Compounds) Attack parasites and diseases Agranulocytes Lack visible cytoplasmic granules Nuclei are spherical, oval, or kidney shaped. Include: Lymphocytes Monocytes Abundance of Leukocytes List of WBCs from most to least abundant Neutrophils Lymphocytes Monocytes Eosinophil Basophils Easy way to remember Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas Granulocyte: Neutrophils Neutrophils are multilobed nucleus with fine granules 40-70% of leukocytes in blood Phagocytes at active sites of infection Secretes cytokines Circulate in blood 7-10 hours Migrate to tissues for a few days Increases in number during infections Eat (engulf them) or dump toxic chemicals to lyse them. Granulocyte: Eosinophil 1-4% of leukocytes Large brick-red cytoplasmic granules Phagocytes (but no main mechanism of action) Defend against parasitic invaders (e.g. worm) Granules contain toxic molecules that attack parasites Granulocytes: Basophils <1% Non phagocytic May depend against large parasites by releasing toxic substances Contribute to allergic reactions Histamine – inflammation Histamines release cause allergies which are healed with anti-histamines. Heparin-anticoagulation Allows cells to get to undamaged tissue Lyses using toxic substances Agraunlocytes: Monocytes become macrophages 4-8% of leukocytes Phagocytes Macrophages: La
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