The only fluid tissue in the human body
Classified as a connective tissue
Components of blood
Living Cells called formed elements
Erythrocytes = red blood cells transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
Leukocytes – white blood cells the defend body against pathogens
Platelets – cell fragments formed from megakaryocytes, important in blood clotting
CYTES – means mature cells are leukocytes are mature white blood cells
Non Living matrix: plasma is the fluid and solutes.
Blood Hematocrit and Beyond
When blood is centrifuged – Centrifuging separates substances by their weight.
Erythrocytes sink to the bottom (45% of blood, a percentage known as the hematocrit)
Buffy Coat contains leukocytes and platelets (less than 1% of blood), the buffy coat is a think,
whitish layer between the erythrocytes and plasma.
Plasma rises to the top (55% of blood)
Average blood volume
Women = 5.0L
Men = 5.5L
Blood coagulates so there needs to be a chemical that stops it from coagulates
Hematocrit Diagnosis: Infection & Cancer:Alot of buffy Coat within a blood sample
Anemia: Low erythrocytes (not 45%. Maybe 30%).
Water – solvent for carrying other substances; absorbs heat
Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bicarbonate
Osmotic balance, pH buggering, regulation of membrane permeability
Albumin – Osmotic Balance, pH Buffering
Fibrinogen – clotting of blood
-gen: means it isn’t activated (or turned on) yet.
Globulins – defense (antibodies) and lipid transport.
Substances transported by blood
Nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins)
Waste products of metabolism (urea, uric acid)
Respiratory Cases (O2 and CO2)
Body – just a sac of proteins that are differently expressed
Famine in 3 world.Anorexia
Kwashiorkor – they have a distended belly There is less then 300 MilliOsmolar/L
Water leaves body and goes to the soft tissue in order to complete the correct MilliOsmolar. This
makes the stomach enlarge.
Physical Characteristics of Blood
Blood is used as a vehicle of transport
Oxygen – rich blood is scarlet red
Oxygen – poor blood is dull red
pH is between 7.35-7.45 (7.4)
Blood temperature is slightly higher than body temperature at 38 degrees (100.4 degrees F), it
transfer heat throughout the body.
Blood Plasma is ~ 90% Water
6=8% proteins which: increase osmotic pressure, buffer H+, increase blood viscosity, provide
fuel during starvation
3 Major classes of Plasma proteins (synthesized in live, except some globulins synthesized by
Albumins: Major contributor to plasmas oncotic osmotic pressure and act as carriers
Globulins: carriers, clotting factors, precursor proteins (angiotensinogen), immunoglobulins
Fibrinogen: Blood Clotting
Nutrients: Glucose, amino acids, lipids, vitamins
Wastes: Urea, bilirubin, creatinine
Electrolytes (aka salts and ions)
Relatively high concentrations of Na+ and Cl-
Relatively low concentrations of H+, HCO3- K+ and CA2+ Short circuits all of one’s electrical systems. The body shuts down and dies.
If you change the shape of a protein, Osmolarity changes.
Salts, pH change the proteins.
Hydrogen is so little so it can find proteins easily in order to change it’s shape, which then
changes it’s function.
Asolution of distilled water containing electrolytes and compounds so that the same
concentrations as their occurrences in body fluids.
This solution is iso-osmotic to our blood pressure and tissues
280-300 milliosmoles per liter (we will use 300 mOsm/L
Blood and tissue osmolarity must be equal to prevent net movements of fluids
If the IV drip bag only has water, then your body parts will swell
If the IV Drip bag has too much nutrients then the body will lose water because blood is losing
water through osmosis.
Osmosis: Water (solvent) diffuses down it’s concentration gradient
The link between water and salt
Solute in the body include electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium ions
Changes in the electrolytes balance causes water to move from one compartment to another
which alters blood volume and blood pressure and can impair the activity of cells.
Water moves from Low solute to high solute = high solvent to low solvent.
Pure water has 0 solute present
Water reabsorption follows solute reabsorption
Acidosis – blood becomes too acidic (less than 7.35) Alkalosis: blood becomes too basic (greater than 7.45)
In each scenario, the respiratory system and kidneys help restore blood pH to normal Carbon
Dioxide can dissolve in water ( blood plasma) and form carbonic acid
CO2 + H2O H2CO3 (carbonicAcid H- + HCO3-
Acid Base Balance
Normal pH of arterial blood = 7.4
pH < 7.35 = acidosis
pH> 7.45 = alkalosis
Most ions originate as by-products of cellular metabolism
Complications with acid-base disturbance
Conformation change in protein structure
Change in excitability of neurons
Changes in balance of other ions
Acids and Bases:
Acids are Proton (H+) donors
Strong acids dissociates completely and liberate all of their H+ in water
Weak Acids, such as carbonic acid, dissociate only partially
Bases are Proton (H+)Acceptors)
Strong bases dissociate easily in water and tie up H+
Weak bases, such as bicarbonate ion and ammonia, are slower to accept H+ Cellular or Formed Element
Platelets (cell fragments)
DevelopmentalAspects of blood cells:
Sites of blood cell formation
The fetal liver and spleen are early sites of blood cell formation
Bone marrow takes over hematopoiesis by the seventh month.
Fetal hemoglobin differs from hemoglobin produced after birth, fetal hemoglobin has a gamma
subunit in place of the beta subunit and higher affinity for oxygen
Fetal babies have higher affinity so that when their RBCs get closer to the mother’s RBCs, it is
able to take the oxygen.
Physiological jaundice results when the liver cannot rid the body of hemoglobin breakdown
Main function is to carry oxygen
Anatomy of circulating erythrocytes
Biconcave disk – large surface area which favors diffusion.
Essentially bags of hemoglobin
Anucleate ( no nucleus)
Contain very few organelles
Use anaerobic glycolysis
5-6 billion RCS per L of blood
Flexible membrane Allows it to fit into capillaries one at a time
Also function to maintain osmolarity and blood/plasma pH
If body has too much water, erythrocytes are able to swell or crenate so that they adjust for
body’s water levels.
Hemoglobin in RBCs
Hb binds strongly (but reversibly) to oxygen
98.5% oxygen bound to HB and 1.5% dissolved in plasma
Each hemoglobin molecule has 4 oxygen binding sites
Globin + 4 heme groups = 4 polypeptides and heme = iron-containing group
Iron containing protein
Can also bind to CO2 and H+ (different binding sites.)
Formation of Erthrycotes
Mature RBCs are unable to divide, grow, or synthesize proteins.
Wear out in 100-120 days
When worn out RBCs are eliminated by phagocytes in the spleen or liver
Lost cells are replaced by division of hemocytoplasts in the red bone marrow
Iron is a component of hemoglobin
Lost cells are replaced by division of hemocytoblasts in the red bone marrow.
Control of Erythrocyte Production
Rate is controlled by a hormone (erythropoietin)
Kidneys produce most erythropoietin as a response to reduced oxygen levels in the blood
Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback from blood oxygen levels. Control of the erythrocyte production
If the oxygen drops to 60 mmHG (should be 100mmHG)
Reduced levels of blood cells is sensed
Kidneys releases Erythropoietin.
Erythropoietin stimulates red bone marrow
This then enhances erythropoiesis and more RBCs are created.
This then increases the amount of oxygen carrying ability of blood
Anemia: Decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
All anemia share the decrease I oxygen carrying capacity
Iron: iron-deficiency anemia
Fixed with Iron Pills
Pernicious – lack of Vitamin B12
Injections of B12
Hemorrhagic anemia: bleeding
Malaria or Sickle CellAnemia
Sickle Cells can clump and impede with blood flow
Fixed with a no exercise lifestyle or drinking more water so that the cells swell and won’t clump
Malaria: Those who have Both Sickle and Normal Cells are better off with malaria because Liver and
Spleen work hard to get rid of Sickle Cells which happen to get rid of Malaria as well.
Aplastic anemia – bone marrow defect
Causes Anemia because it directly affects the amount of RBCs in the blood stream
RenalAnemia – kidney disease
Affects the Erythropoietin. Diseased Kidneys hinders the release of the hormone which creates
White Blood Cells or WBCs)
Crucial in the body’s defense against disease
There are complete cells, with a nucleus and Organelles
Able to move into and out of the blood vessels (diapedsis)
Van move by amoeboid motion
Can respond to chemicals released by damaged tissues (cytokines)
Chemicals released by cells to communicated to one another
4000 – 11,000 WBC per cubic millimeter (microliter) of blood
Types of Leukocytes
Two Major Classes of Leukocytes
Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained
You need to stain WBCs in order to see them
Posses lobed nuclei
Include Neutrophils – stained with pH neutral substances
Eosinophil – stained with pH acid substances
Basophils – stained with pH basic substances
Granules are enzymes (toxic Compounds)
Attack parasites and diseases
Lack visible cytoplasmic granules
Nuclei are spherical, oval, or kidney shaped.
Abundance of Leukocytes
List of WBCs from most to least abundant
Easy way to remember
Neutrophils are multilobed nucleus with fine granules
40-70% of leukocytes in blood
Phagocytes at active sites of infection
Circulate in blood 7-10 hours
Migrate to tissues for a few days
Increases in number during infections
Eat (engulf them) or dump toxic chemicals to lyse them.
1-4% of leukocytes
Large brick-red cytoplasmic granules
Phagocytes (but no main mechanism of action)
Defend against parasitic invaders (e.g. worm)
Granules contain toxic molecules that attack parasites
Non phagocytic May depend against large parasites by releasing toxic substances
Contribute to allergic reactions
Histamine – inflammation
Histamines release cause allergies which are healed with anti-histamines.
Allows cells to get to undamaged tissue
Lyses using toxic substances
Agraunlocytes: Monocytes become macrophages
4-8% of leukocytes