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Lecture 22

BSCI 283 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Gardasil, Vaccine Efficacy, Toxoid


Department
Biological Sciences Program
Course Code
BSCI 283
Professor
Daniel Stein
Lecture
22

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Host Defenses 3 5/1/17
Factors
o Is there cross species protection?
o e.g., can immunological memory of S. agalactiae provide protection against S.
pneumoniae?
o Is there cross strain protection?
o e,g., will immunological memory of one strain (serotype) of S. pneumoniae or
S. pyogenes protect against another strain of the same species?
Endotoxin/Exotoxins
o Endotoxin: LPS-not secreted
o Exotoxins: secreted proteins
A-B toxins
Enzymes and cytolytic toxins
Super antigens
o Streptococcus pyogenes secretes two cytolytic toxins: streptolysin S and
streptolysin O
o Cytolytic toxins damage host cell cytoplasmic membrane, causing lysis and death
o Such toxins can often lyse red blood cells
o Super antigen-protein that activates T cell without antigen presentation
Inappropriate activation of T cells
o Typical immune response only activates small part of immune system
o Immunodiagnostic test: uses antibodies to diagnose whether antigens come
from streptococcus pyogenes
o Typical immune response involves activation of ~0.001% of TH cells
o Superantigens can activate up to 25% of TH cells
Immunodiagnostics
o Using antibodies as detection tools
o Use ELISA assay
o Antibody binds specific antigen
o In lab we can attach things to part of lg without hindering antigen binding
o Antibody may be immobilized on paper or plastic
Whole Agent Vaccines
o Subunit vaccine-take critical proteins from pathogen that are virulence
determinants
o Toxoid- inactivated toxins
Capsule Structure
o Group B Strep: streptococcus agalactiae
o 9 capsular subtypes
o Streptococcus pneumoniae
o 90 capsuslar serotypes
o Group A Strep Streptococcus pyogenes
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