Ch2 Data.pdf

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University of Maryland
Business and Management
BMGT 230
Kazim Ruhi

Ch2 Data Wednesday,January 29,2014 11:11 AM Statistics consists of two parts: 1. Descriptive statistics a. Graphing b. Calculation to summarize date (mean, median, percentile) 2. Inferential statistics a. we'll be dealing with b. to make decisions and predictions about a population i. by generalizing the facts we learned from a sample -- Data Data are useless without their context. • Without context, we can't understand what the data are about • The Who,What,Why,Where,When and How of Data The rows of a data table correspond to individual cases about Whom we record some characteristics. • common place to find who is the leftmost column • "cases"can also be • respondents–individuals who answer a survey • subjects or participants –people in an experiment • experimental units–animals, plants, websites, or other inanimate objects • Question from hwk: The food retailer wants to determine the best store location in Texas, and will examine census data from existing stores • Who was measured? existing stores not stores in Texas!!! • What - what has been recorded-variables -e.g.Area code, price, brand name • When data are collected can be important. Data that are decades old may mean something different than similar values recorded last year. • data collected b4 Obama speech can't be applied after it-people change mind • Where data are collected can be important. Data collected in Mexico may differ in meaning than data collected in the United States. • How data are collected can make the difference between insight and nonsense. • bias: data collected in 3am / people who dislike school fill out the survey • Kelsey: "people you found is systematically different from the others" • data came from online voluntary survey are almost always worthless Relationship between Variables and data • Variable: The (varying) characteristics recorded about each individual or case-What has been measured. • Age, Sex, Major,… • Data: the value of the variables • 20, Male, English,… -- Variable Types • When a variable names categories and answers questions about how cases fall into those categories, it is called a cat
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