Greeks and Roman Mythology
What is a Myth?
The American Heritage defines:
Aspect of the supernatural
People from your past
Tells us how the tellers think of the world
Tells us they think the world should be
What is Mythology?
The Oxford Classical Dictionary:
Scholarship dealing with myth but also a particular body of myths.
Hesiod (born ca. 700 BCE)
He lived in Ascra in Boeotia
He tended sheep on Mt. Helicon
A) Theogony deals with origin and genealogies of the ancient Greek gods.
B) Works and days tells us how thing got to be the way they are now.
Bible, Genesis: Chapters 1-3/Hebrew
Not written down before 600s BCE in Hebrew
Describes creation in ways that are really useful for comparison when we discuss Greek
and Roman Mythology.
Publius “Ovid” Naso (43 BCE – CE)
Wrote in Latin
Wrote the metamorphous, amongst other works, as a kind of compilation of all Greek and
Homer (ca. 8 century BCE)
Is said to have been blind
Did not write poems so much as sing them. Proclus (410 – 485 CE)
Wrote in Greek
Philosopher who wrote the Chrestomathy, a kind of hand book for writers which
Statius (48 – 96 CE)
Wrote in Latin
Wrote on mythological subjects having to do with Homers “Iliad” and “Odyssey.”
Apollo dons (ca. 2 century CE)
Wrote in Greek
Wrote Bibliotheca, a handbook on Greek myths.
Aeschylus (525 – 456 BCE)
Athenian playwright who wrote in Greek.
The most ancient of three tragic playwrights.
Left us 7 plays and 400 fragments.
Won 13 times at the City Dionysian.
Sophocles (496 – 406 BCE)
Athenian playwright who wrote in Greek.
Wrote 123 plays, but only seven survived.
20 plays won City Dionysian.
Plays deal with religion and state.
Euripides (ca. 480s – 406 BCE)
Athenian playwright who wrote in Greek
First completed in 455 BCE
Died in Macedonia.
Vergil (70 BCE – 19 BCE)
Roman poet who wrote in Latin
A member of a group known as the neoteris.
Titus “Livy” Livius (59 BCE – 17 CE)
Wrote in Latin, roman historian who wrote “Ab Urbe Condita.” Mythological Gods
Gods *Greek name/Roman name*
Zeus/Jupiter (sky god, god of xenia or guest friendship, god of justice)
Who: Son of Cronos, husband of Hera, father of many (!)
Attributes: Thunderbolts, Eagles
Poseidon/Neptune (sea god, earthquake god, god of horse)
Who: Brother of Zeus
Attributes: Trident, horses, sea weed
Hades/Pluto (god of the underworld)
Who: brother of Zeus, husband of Persephone
Attributes: often pictured seated on a throne and wearing a beard
Hera/Juno (goddess of marriage and childbirth)
Who: Sister and wife of Zeus
Attributes: often shown veiled or seated or wearing a hat, and a peacock
Athena/Minerva (goddess of wisdom, military strategy, practical intelligence, and handicrafts)
Who: Daughter of Zeus by Metis, the goddess of cleverness
Attributes: Helmet, body armor, spear, owl
Aphrodite/Venus (goddess of love and desire shown below with sometime lover)
Who: Is born from the froth which knows cuts his father‟s genitals off with a sickle and
they fell into the sea
Attributes: Swan, cupid, mirror, lack of clothing or wild/colorful clothing
Demeter/Ceres (goddess of the harvest)
Who: Sister of Zeus
Attributes: Carries a stalk of wheat
Dionysus/Bacchus (god of grapes and wines)
Who: Son of Zeus, husband to Ariadne Attributes: Often depicted variously as either a very young, beardless man or a rather
priestly looking man with a long beard. Often pictured with a leopard or with a wild
Hermes/Mercury (god messenger, god of thievery, god of commerce, god of crossing
Who: Son of Zeus by Maia
Attributes: Winged sandals, travelers cap, staff (with snakes wrapped at the top)
Apollo (sun god, god of music, medicine)
Who: Son of Zeus by Leda
Attributes: Bow, lyre (harp), often wears laurel wreath on his head.
Artemis/Diana (goddess of the hunt, young woman before marriage, and childbirth)
Who: Twin sister of Apollo, daughter of Zeus
Attributes: Often shown wearing short tunic and holding a bow or with hunting dogs
Hestia/Vista (goddess of the hearth)
Who: Sister of Zeus
Attributes: She‟s too modest to be parading around having recognizable features
Ares/Mars (god of war)
Who: Son of Zeus and Hera
Attributes: Young, with a helmet and spear
Hephaestus/Vulcan (lame god)
Who: Son of Zeus (maybe) and Hera
Attributes: Walks with a limp, metalworking implements (hammer, anvil, tongs), wife is
Chaos Gaia Tartarus Eros
Ouranos ---- Gaia
(Sky/Heaven) Kronos Rheia
Pandora – lovely evil (all the gifts)
The Iliad Back Story
The Iliad Back Story
Marriage of Peleus and Thetis:
Zeus marries Peleus and Thetis because he has anxiety of the god babies that come from
gods producing with each other.
Peleus and Thetis have a kid, Achilles, who is given away to be trained to grow up to be
big and strong.
Social event (marriage) where all the gods are invited except for Eris.
Eris roles a golden apple and says it‟s for the prettiest of them all. The goddesses get into
an argument and the gods search for a mortal to pick the most beautiful.
They find Paris who isn‟t that bright and picks the prettiest girl.
Genealogy of Helen
Helen is not Trojan, she is Greek, and is the prettiest in the world.
Helen is the product of Zeus and Leta. Zeus seduces Leta (human) in a form of a swan.
Children of Zeus and Leta = Helen-Klytemnestra-Castor-Polydueces.
Helen was born from an egg.
Strange voice, glowing eyes and eerie appearance.
The face that launched a thousand ships.
House of Atreus
Atreus---Aerope= Agamemnon and Menelaus.
Agamemnon and Helen marry.
Helen and Agamemnon marry.
House of Priam, King of Troy
Priam----Hekuba= Hektor and Paris.
Hektor fine upstanding citizen, great in war.
Paris only thinks about himself, good looking and not as manly as his older brother. The gathering of the troops at Aulis
All the great kings of Greece appear except Odysseus and Achilles.
Achilles is grown and able to fight.
Odysseus doesn‟t want anything to do with the war. Pretends he is crazy so they won‟t
take him into the war.
Achilles hidden by Thetis on Scyros. Unwilling to be hidden. Fathers a child,
Neoptolemus/Pyrrhus to Deidamia.
Achilles discovered by Odysseus.
Agamemnon sacrifices his daughter, Iphigenia, in order to get a wind to take the fleet to
On the Trojan Side:
Priam=King of Troy, Father of 50 sons and 12 daughters.
Hektor=Son of Priam and Hekuba, greatest of the Trojan warriors.
Paris=Son of Priam and Hekuba, cause of the Trojan War.
Aeneas=Trojan warrior who is the son of Aphrodite and Anchises.
Andromache=Wife of Hektor.
Astyanax= Son of Hektor.
On the Greek Side:
Achaeans, Argives, Teucrians, Danaans=Greeks.
Leader is Agamemnon.
Menelaus brother is Agamemnon, King of Sparta.
Myrimidons= the name of the contingent from Phthia.
Odysseus= From Ithaka, clever.
Ajax= Best warrior after Achilles. From Salamis.
Diomedes= 3 best warrior. From Argos and Tiryns.
Nestor= Wise counselor to the Greeks, from Pylos.
Phoenix= Friend and mentor of Achilles. Adopted Achilles‟ father and made king of
Patroclus= Achilles‟ BFF and member of Myrimidons.
Bards, Tomb-raiders, and Scholars
The Trojan war ended - 1182 B.C.E
Son of a church minister.
Didn‟t manage his money well. Learned how to read Greek (old, hard to read).
Believed Iliad and Odysseus actually happened.
Bought tons of land in Turkey, (where Troy supposedly was) dug up the earth and found
“The Walls of Troy.”
Established Stratigraphy (map out the different layers where you dig).
Cultural Assemblage: A collection of items from a single datable component of an
Found the so-called jewels of Helen (broach pin and necklace).
Remarried a girl named Sophie- dressed in items he found.
He digs in Mycenae in 1876.
Mask of Agamemnon found in Mycenae.
Michael Ventris decoded in 1952.
Epithets: Descriptive terms for a person or place that fit the rhythm and can be plugged in
according to what the bard needs.
Stock phrases: Descriptive phrases for describing a given action that fit the rhythm and
can be plugged in according to what the bard needs.
Homer composed the “Iliad” and “Odysseus” orally.
Nothing in Excess Meaning
The words “Nothing in Excess” (don‟t be prideful) and “Know Yourself” (know your
place) were written on the front of Apollo‟s temple at Delphi.
Latona birthed Apollo and Artemis on Delos because Hera cursed her and made Latona
unable to have her babies on Earth.
Delos was believed to float on top of Earth, never touching the ground.
Hybris – a hurtful action done to make oneself feel better; if its revenge, it‟s not hybris.
Niobe was hybris while Latona was taking revenge.
Iliad Book I-IV
Time` - honor, reputation.
Aidos – shame (sense of)
Basileus – chief/king
Wanax – chief of chiefs/king of kings
Dike` - justice Kleos – fame, glory; most importantly, what people say about you after you die.
Arête – excellence. This is how you gain your kleos. You can gain this by either word or
deed. However, it is better to be a doer than a talker. If you are clever, words can help
keep things from escalating to deed.
Aristos – the “best”. Those who are in control.
Heros` - Someone descended from divine blood.
Heraklid – about Herakles
Theseid – about Theseus
Theban Cycle – about Cadmus, Oedipus
Seven Against Thebes – About the seven armies attacking Thebes.
Argive Cycle – about Agamemnon, Orestes, Elektra
Kalydouran – Cycle about the beginning of the Trojan War
Trojan Cycle – Kypria, Iliad, Little Iliad, Ilioupersis, Odyssey, and the Nostoi
The Identity of Homer
The Iliad and the Odyssey are generally said to belong to the latter half of the 8th
The current consensus amongst scholars is that there was a single poet who gave the
poems their final form.
It is said that the poems written doth and edited in Athens by the command of the tyrant
Pisistratus in the second half of the 6 century.
Alexandrian scholars in the gave the poem its final form in 2d and 3 centuries BCE
(e.g. Book divisions, omission of spurious material)
Achilles attack Agamemnon
Chryses goes to Agamemnon offering gold to get his daughter (Chryseis) back.
Chryse goes back home, prays to Apollo for vengeance.
Apollo starts plucking the soldiers one by one.
Agamemnon gives Chryseis back to her father.
Agamemnon asks for Achilles latest „slaved woman‟ Briseis in exchange for the return of
Athena stops Achilles from fighting Agamemnon.
Thetis Consoles Achilles, Tiepolo
Achilles is sobbing on a rock and his mother comes from the sea to find out why.
Asking his mother (Thetis) for Zeus to help the Trojans attack the Greeks.
Jupiter and Thetis
Hera notices Thetis and Zeus talking about attacking the Greeks. Hera and Zeus get into an argument because Hera favors the Greeks and Zeus is siding
with the Trojans.
Hephaestus steps in before things get too serious.
A joking mood when he talks some sense into Hera.
The false dream of Agamemnon.
The council of the Greeks.
Athena puts thought into their heads, saying its bad to come home with nothing to prove
for 9 years of battle.
What does he look like?
A) Ugliest soldier in Troy. Bone legged, walked with a limp, caved in chest.
What does he say?
B) Theresites that Agamemnon doesn‟t do anything while they do all the work. Believes he
takes everything first and gives them the rest of pot.
Book III: The Duel
Paris calls for a duel.
All agree; Oaths and Sacrifice – Contrast with the sacrificial ritual in Book I.455ff.
Duel of Menelaus and Paris.
A) Menelaus beats the crap out of Paris.
B) Aphrodite saves Paris from being killed.
Helen watching from the walls – Introduction to the major Greek heroes.
Helen and Paris at the end of Book III.
Book V – Aristeia of Diomedes
Aristeia – when you do something amazing.
Almost slays Aeneas – rescued by Aphrodite. Aphrodite cut by Diomedes
Wounds Ares – Diomedes encouraged by Athena
Ares rebuked by Zeus Diomedes and Glaucus exchange Armor in a Show of Xenia (rights of guest friendship)
Hector at home with Andromache and Astyanax
Goes to tell the elder women to pray to Athena.
To find Paris and to bring him to the battlefield.
Meets his wife and child. – Child fears his father while he has his helmet on.
Andromache wants Hector to stay with their family – she fears he may die.
Hector says it‟s his „fate‟ to continue to battle whether he dies or lives.
Iliad Book V, IX, XI
Book V – Aristeia of Diomedes
Almost slays Aeneas
a. Aeneas rescued by Aphrodite
b. Aphrodite cut by Diomedes.
a. Diomedes encouraged by Athena
Ares rebuked by Zeus
Hector at home with Andromache and Astyanax
Andromache wants hector to stay home so he doesn‟t die.
Hector wants to fight so he isn‟t shamed.
Fights for his family and the city of Troy.
Book IX: The Embassy of Phoenix, Odysseus, and Ajax to Achilles
Nestor suggest that Phoenix, Odysseus and Ajax goes to talk to Achilles
Phoenix is like a father to Achilles. Troop from Thea.
Odysseus is a clever talker and from Ithaca.
Ajax is the number 2 skilled fighter, right under Achilles.
All three of them visit, never apologize, but really offers him items (7 cities, slave girls,
one of the daughters of Agamemnon and tons of money).
Achilles declines their offer. Doesn‟t want to marry Agamemnon‟s daughter. He wants
klaus but won‟t get it if he returns home with nothing to show.
Book XI: Patroclus and Achilles
Agamemnon goes out and kills a lot of people.
Patroclus goes and talks to Nestor. He suggests Nestor takes Achilles armor and take it
out in the battlefield so the Trojans would think Achilles is fighting in the war. Iliad Book 19, 22-24
Book 19: Achilles Receives his Armor
Achilles was planning to push the Trojans back and surprisingly encounters Hector.
Hector doesn‟t want to fight Achilles so he is chased around the city of Troy.
Athena steps in and intervenes as Daophobus (Hectors brother) and convinces him to
Hector was afraid of Achilles defiling his body so he tries to make an agreement. Achilles
declines and says he‟s going to make him pay for the death of Patroclus.
Athena gives the missed spear – Achilles threw at Hector- back to Achilles.
Hector sees his death when he looks back to his brother (Athena disguised).
Hector begs Achilles not to mutilate his body with his dogs.
Briseis threw herself upon Patroclus‟ body and mourns his death.
Book 22: Achilles and Hector
Hectors body is dragged around the rocky ground, in front of Hector‟s family.
Apollo and Aphrodite restore and protect Hectors body while the Greeks still have him.
Book 23: Patroclus’ Funeral
The ghost of Patroclus visits Achilles asking why his body isn‟t buried yet.
Achilles sacrifices 12 of Hectors brothers and puts them on the sides of the Patroclus‟
He throws people, horses and hunting dogs in the funeral fire.
Achilles starts to let go of his anger.
Over the top, elaborate ceremony for the dead.
Book 24: Hector returned to Troy
Andromache talks and thinks her son wouldn‟t make it because he is a baby and they
usually kill them during those times.
Hecuba admits Hector is her favorite and says he looks good.
Helen says Hector was her protector basically defending her from his brother and sisters
and mothers comments about her.
The important women of Troy mourn over the death of Hector.
What someone a man in society?
Honor and Respect.
How does one‟s personal pride affect his/her actions?
Kleos makes med do great deeds and want glory.
Odyssey Book Analysis
Odysseus/ Ulysses Paris Slays Achilles
The Greeks try to steal the statue of Athena after Achilles is killed.
Athena isn‟t amused; she foresees a bad trip for the Greeks.
After kidnapping the statue, they raped the priestess of Athena‟s temple.
The Earliest Known Representation of the Trojan Horse, Mykonos, 8 century BCE
The build the Trojan horse out of ruined ship parts.
They offer the horse as a gift to the Trojans.
The Greeks meanwhile hide, pretending to sail away.
The Trojans would have to put down their gates in order to get the horse into the city.
Once inside, the Greeks signaled the other Greeks that were hiding and told them to come
back so they can ransack the city of Troy.
Helen goes back with Menelaus.
Everyone else goes home.
Klytemnestra Kills Agamemnon
Agamemnon‟s wife is married to another man.
They kill Agamemnon.
Wife doesn‟t like him, including the fact he came home with a mistress.
Poseidon is really mad with Odysseus because he blinded his son, Polyphemus, the
Takes 10 years after the Trojan War to get back to Ithaca.
The Structure of the Odyssey
Iliad - Menis “Rage”
Odyssey – Polytropos – „clever, many –wiled‟ Aner – “man”
Nostos – “Return home”
A Man of Many Ways:
1) Odysseus the smooth-talker (book 6., pg. 288, lines 149-159)
Odysseus and Hermes
Homeric epithet polytropos
Both smooth talkers
Grandson of Autolycus
The son of Hermes and Chione (Hyginus).
“Best man on earth at thieving and lying, skills which he had learned from Hermes”
(Book 19, p. 415).
Gives Odysseus his name: odyssomai = I hate.
Athena, Odysseus’ Protector
Ajax, Athena, Odysseus, and Achilles‟ armor
Uses his words to win the armor.
Causes Ajax to go insane and kill himself.
2) Sad or “Emo-dysseus”
Sitting on the beach in Ogygia in book 5.
Again at Alkinous‟ hall during the story of the sack of Troy. (book 8, pgs. 296-297, lines
3) Suspicious Odysseus
In the cave with Polyphemus (book 9. 271-278 pg. 307).
Floating at sea when Ino tries to help him (pg. 280, line 358-260).
4) Vagrant or “Hobo-dysseus”
As when he visits Helen in Troy in book 4.
When he first meets Nausicaa in book 6 (page 288, lines 134-137).
5) Odysseus the Master Story-Teller
At the house of Alcinous in Scheria in books 9-12. Since leaving Troy...
3 years of wanderings (as described in Books 9-12)
Including one year with Circe
7 years with Calypso on island of Ogygia.
Odysseus goes to Scheria, the island of the Phaeascians.
Penelope and Telemachus
Odysseus has a wife, Penelope, and a son, Telemachus.
Athena visits Telemachus.
Telemachus comes of age to inherit.
Penelope unaccustomed to Telemachus‟ authority
Penelope orders Phemius to sing a different song, but is countermanded by
Intercession of Athena to Zeus
Poseidon absent from Olympus
Allusion to the terrible Nostos of Agamemnon AND the vengeance of Orestes
Odyssey Book IV-VI, IX-X
Visit to Menelaus at Sparta
All weep for Odysseus
Menelaus (eventually) tells the story of his return home.
Role of Helen
Compares Odysseus and Telemachus
Secretly drugs the wine (nepenthe)
Contribution to the Trojan mythology as a whole
Alludes to the nostoi of Ajax, Agamemnon.
Significance to the plot of the Odyssey in particular
Odysseus still alive
Lesson to Telemachus
Book V Odysseus is stuck on an island with the immortal nymph Calypso.
He wishes to leave and see his family while Calypso wants him to stay so he can continue
to be her sex slave.
Book VI - Phaeascians
Phaeacia is Odysseus‟ rehabilitation into civilization
Nausicaa and her Maids lead Odysseus back to Alcinous.
She paces Odysseus because she doesn‟t want people to think they are lovers.
Odysseus visits Arête in order to enter the house.
Phaeacia and Ogygia, Aeaea compared
Meeting with Aeaea.
Phemius (Book I)
Demodocus (Book VI, VIII)
Self-portrait of Homer
How is Odysseus like a bard? (Book IX)
Book IX: Odysseus the giant killer blinds the Cyclops
Why does Odysseus visit the cave of the Polyphemus? (Book IX, 169)
How does Odysseus get the better of Polyphemus?
Wine of Maroon
Name of outis, “no man”
Binding of the herds
Book X: Visit to Aeolus and Laestrygonians Aeolia
Odysseus‟ crew‟s greediness
Odysseus “despised by the blessed gods” (X.85)
A repetition of the Cyclops?
o They eat people
o They have a society
How does Odysseus improve his strategy?
How many ships survive the attack by the Laestrygonians?
o Only 1 ship
Odyssey Book X-XII, XXII
Book X: Circe and her Potion
Daughter of Helios and Perse, brother of Aeetes, aunt of Medea
She is seen weaving
Like Helen, she has access to drugs, but much more powerful
She‟s the head of her household
Odysseus and Circe: It Just Can’t Last
Fear of castration
“[lest] she unsex you when you are nude”
How does Odysseus defeat Circe?
o Hermes‟ gift of Moly
How does Odysseus relate to women compared to Menelaus or Agamemnon?
He‟s good at talking to women; Nausicaa for example, compliments her without
Book XI: Odysseus’ katabasis Katabasis < kata (down) + baino (I go)
Typical adventure for a mythology hero.
Like Hercules, Odysseus also goes to the Underworld and returns.
Underworld in the Far West
Land of the Cimmerians, “where the sun never shines”
Near the river Ocean.
Dead must be approached with a chthonic ritual.
Must consume the blood
No body, but still frightened by sword.
Most mortals neither in paradise nor torment
Some who have really offended the gods punished
Tityus, Tantalus, Sisyphus
Whom does Odysseus meet?
Elpenor, a recently dead member of his crew.
Tiresias, the most famous seer in mythology.
Figures heavily in the myths of Thebes.
Anticleia, his mother
Aegisthus and Clytemnestra. What he say about women?
Neoptolemus – Achilles son kills Priam and was a great warrior.
Ajax (son of Telamon) – still mad about the armor situation.
Catalogue of Women
Tyro, grandmother of Jason
Antiope mother of Zethus and Amphion (Thebes)
Alcmene mother of Hercules
Epicaste (Jocasta), mother of Oedipus (Thebes)
Leda, mother of Castor and Polydeuces (also Helen and Clytemnestra)
Iphimedea, mother of two Otus and Ephialtes.
In the underworld, Tiresias makes a prophecy (a prediction about things that are to come)
concerning Odysseus‟ homecoming. (Od. X, 97-136). Pp. 334-335. In it, he says that a
few things will happen.
Everything the gods say is 100% true. Athena comes down as a friend and tells Telemachus about the future.
Circe gives a speech to Odysseus as well, and tells him what he will encounter on
his journey back home.
Pathetic prophecy of humans
Patroclus telling Hector he was going to die by Achilles, saying he sees death
Hector telling Achilles he isn‟t going to conquer Troy.
Nausicaa has a dream of getting married.
The gods use this to get the humans to do something
Reference in the Iliad, the dream that make Agamemnon to start back in the war
1. You will be marooned on Thrinacia. If you eat the cattle of the Sun, you will
2. All be destroys or
3. Only you will escape but will
4. come home badly, late in someone else‟s ship
5. Suitors will be in your house but you will kill them, either openly or by trick,
6. However, you will have to travel with an oar over your shoulder until you come to a
place where someone asks you if it‟s a winnowing fan. There you will plant it in the
ground and offer a sacrifice to Poseidon.
7. You will die peacefully and in prosperous circumstances.
Book XII: Odysseus and Sirens
Depicted as flying creatures or mermaids that lure men to the rocks.
He listens to the song because he wants to know more.
His men‟s ears are clogged with bees wax.
Straits of Messina
Site of Scylla and Charybdis. Between Sicily and Italy.
Twelve legs and six necks with dogs heads coming out her genital regions
A whirlpool that sucks the water down to the bottom of the ocean three times and spits it
out three times.
The Cattle of the Sun
Trapped in unsure winds.
The men are starving because they have so little food left.
They rather die with full bellies than of starvation.
They decide to kill the cattle while Odysseus spaces himself away from the men as they
are eating the cattle. The cows belong to the sun and are immortal.
Unholy, disgusting, scary and weird.
Their ship gets zapped by a bolt of lightning and everyone dies besides Odysseus.
The Suitors of Penelope
52 from Dulichium
24 from Same
20 from Zacynthos
12 from Ithaka
Antonius is one of their leaders
Book XXII: The Suitors Fight Odysseus, Telemachus, Eumaeus, and the Cowherd…with
Athena stops the fight between the Suitors fathers and Odysseus.
Hercules & Hero Pattern
Heracles: The Greatest of the Greek Heroes
1. A man of strong appetites.
2. A loner who lives outside of the civilized world
3. Often thought of as a “blind” or “mad” strong man.
Zeus impregnates Heracles mother.
Hera doesn‟t like the fact Zeus got another woman pregnant.
Heracles kills the serpents Hera sent to kill him.
Does get married to Megara for a short period of time. Heracles went insane because of
Hera causing him to not only killing the people that were trying to hurt his wife but also
killing Meg and his children.
Goes to the oracle of Delphi and receives a prophecy saying he must work under the king
that was born the day Heracles was supposed to be killed. He works for Eurystheus doing
12 tasks he asks of him hoping Heracles would kill Eurystheus with embarrassment.
When he tries to cross the river with his new wife, a centaur offers him assist. But he tries
to kidnap him so Heracles shoots the centaur with a poison arrow which gets on a tunic.
The centaur gives her the tunic saying she should give it to Heracles when she believes he
may be cheating on him.
12 Labors of Heracles
1. The Nemean Lion
A lion was terrorizing the land around Nemea. It could not be speared or stabbed
to death because its skin was