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University of Maryland
COMM 107

Chapter 1 Friday, September 6, 2013 10:03 PM Communication- conscious or unconscious, intentional or unintentional process in which feelings and ideas are expressed as verbal/nonverbalmessages that are sent, received or comprehend Intrapersonal communication(aka personal communication)is communicatingwith yourself (through processing, decision making) Interpersonal communicationis communicationbetween two or more persons who establish a communicativerelationship Public communicationis a speaker communicatingto an audience. You don't really change your response based on how the audience reacts--you'regiving a speech. Communicationis dynamic, continuous, irreversible, interactive,contextual. Human beings are capable of selective communication- we can choosethe symbolthat best represents what we want to express When we communicate,we encode (take ideas and put them into message form) and send them through our primary signal system (senses), to someonewho decodes (translates) the message. During communication,encoded messagesare carried through channels (usually sight or sound) Feedback - the response, a verbal or nonverbal reaction that the receiver has Communicationnoise - internal or external interference in the communicationprocess Environmentalnoise - outside interference, such as running water or loud noises, crowd talking Physiological-ImpairmentNoise - physical problem that can block effectivesending or receiving, such as being blind Semantic noise - problems might arise with the meaning of words, especially across different regions and groups Syntactical noise - inappropriate grammar or form Organizational noise - when a source fails to realize that certain ideas are grasped when presented in a structured order, when the speaker is all over the place Cultural noise - from preconceived,unyielding attitudes in a group or society.They influence beliefs and how people act, which can be a barrier to communication(e.g., what you and what your group does is always right) Psychologicalnoise - stress, frustration, irritation Context matters - age, status, gender, cultural heritage, setting Models of communication: Linear- a source encodes a message, and sends it to the receiver through one or more sensory channels. Linear- a source encodes a message, and sends it to the receiver through one or more sensory channels. The receiver then decodes the message. Interactional- a source encodes and sends the message to the receiver. The receiverdecodes the message, but then encodes feedback and sends it to the source. Transactional- a source and receiver play interchangeable roles throughout the act of communication Cultural Communication: Intracultural-interacting with those with whom you have a cultural bond Intercultural-interacting with those with whom you have little or no cultural bond Multicultural - a society consisting of varied cultural groups Ethnocentrism - consider the views and standards of our own in-group as much more important than any out-group Ethical Communicators- respect the integrity of ideas and concerns from the listeners Chapter 2 Monday, September 16, 2013 9:32 AM Presentation: - Is a form of public communication - He introduced what he is going to talk about at the very beginning - Maintained the audience's attention well - Used visuals which made the presentation more interesting - Could have been better organized - Linear communication - There was environmentalnoise among the crowd - Psychologicalnoise as he is dying soon - Cultural noise as examples of Disney World and NFL might not resonate globally Chapter 2: Language is a system of arbitrary signals such as sounds, gestures, symbols - Used by a nation, people, or distinct community - To communicatethoughts or feelings Meaning - the way words are placed together, and the backgrounds and experiences of the communicators Language is constantly evolving Cybernetic Process: Input -> Storage -> Stimulus -> Search -> Recall -> Output - functions like a computer Cortex - part of the brain that stores,computes and processes incoming signals. Language-explosion Theory - suggests we build communicationskills from the core of language we develop early in life Significant-other theory- suggests we select specific people or groups, whose language, ideals, and beliefs that we allow to influence us Features commonin all languages: Languages are based on a set of symbols,both verbal and non-verbal Languages that are alphabetically based recognize the differences between vowels and consonants Languages have ordered structuralcategories such as verbs, nouns, and objects Words in and of themselvesare not inherently meaningful. Denotative Meanings - direct, explicit meanings Connotative Meanings - implied or suggested meanings Semantics - Relationship of language and meanings Language distortion - occurs when people intentionally or unintentionally distort informationas they process it (ambiguity, vagueness, inferences, message adjustment) Inferences - we interpret beyond available information or jump to conclusions without using all the information available Emotivelanguage - express the feelings, attitudes, and emotionsof the speaker Cognitive language - conveysinformation Identifying language - names persons or things specifically Slang - words that are related to a specific activity or incident that are immediatelyunderstood by membersof a particular group Presentation/Mini Paper Monday, September 16, 2013 10:18 AM - Choose a public presentation (e.g., product announcement,investor relations presentation, speech). This should be an actual person, not a speech from a movie or TV show - Submit your choice via email by end of day on September 18, 2013([email protected]) - Presentation: ○ Be prepared to play a short clip (30 seconds) of the presentationduring class and to highlight your mini-paper during a presentation to the class (5 minutes) - Mini Paper: 3-5 pages, double space, 1" margins, cover sheet, be sure to source anything you draw from the text or elsewhere - Mini Paper should address ○ Basics of the presentation (e.g., name of speaker, title, audience)  Hans Rosling □ Swedish academic, statistician, and public speaker, and the Professorof International Health at Karolinska Institute, and co-founder and chairman of Gapminder Foundation which developed the Trendalyzer software system  "The best stats you've ever seen"  Ted Talk ○ Questions  Why did you choosethe presentation? □ I had initially seen this presentation in a statistics class. It was one of my favorite presentations, and I really liked the way he presented data to a general audience. I think he had a very impressiveuse of visuals. Also, the subject matter he brings up about the developing world is very interesting.  Is it a good presentation? Why or Why not? Note: You must draw from the discussions we've had in class up to this point and the informationthat has been covered up to this point in the text to justify your answer to whether it's a good presentation (e.g., type of communication,communicationnoise, context, communicationmodels, cultural impacts, functions of language, nonverbal communication) □ It is a good presentation  Regardless of whether you think it's a good presentation, what are two things the presenter could have done better to engage his/her audience? Chapter 3 Wednesday, September 18, 2013 9:36 AM Non-verbal communication- composedof all the messages that people exchange beyond words (nodding your head, pointing, smiling, frowning) *your eye movementmight indicate things, if you're looking to the left or right, a memorythat you've seen before - Look someonein the eye when you do a handshake - Don't cross your legs in an interview - Look presentable, dress professionally Sources of nonverbal behavior: Neurological - automatic,nonverbal reactions to stimuli with which we are born (smiling, palms sweating, blinking) Cultural and Intercultural Behaviors - learned nonverbal behavior, reflective of the culture from which they were learned, cultural differences Verbal and Nonverbal Relationships: Substituting - replacing words with actions (nodding yes) Complementing- complementsor reinforces a verbal message (nodding yes and saying yes) Conflicting - movementsconflict to what you're saying (your boss says she has time to talk but is constantly checking her watch) Accenting - nonverbal behaviour that accents or emphasizes what is being said (pointing your finger) Kinesics - Study of communicationthrough the body and its movements Ocalics - study of the eyes Haptics - Study of the use of touch in communication Emblems - Nonverbal acts that have a direct verbal translation or dictionary definitions (sign language) Body Synchrony - study of posture, walk, stance Artifacts - Study those things that adorn the body or environment Proxemics- Study of how people use and perceive their social and personal space Cultures can be distinguished by the distances by which membersinteract by and the frequency of touch Chapter 4 Monday, September 23, 2013 9:08 AM Listening - Is a learned skill, unlike hearing (which is a biological function) Listening Process: Reception- - Chapter 5 Wednesday, October 2, 2013 9:59 AM Intrapersonal Communication - inner speech/self-talk (communication that takes place within a single person, clarifies ideas, analyzes a situation, includes things like thinking, daydreaming, making decisions, keeping a journal) Types of Self Talk: Imagined interactions - mentally picturing or hearing people communicating, rehashing a conversation, preparing for an interview Digital communications - People view what is reflected in a digital space as a reflection of oneself Self-Concept - Your idea or picture of yourself Self-esteem- Physical (body perception) Moral-ethical (evaluation of your belief system) Family (views of family relationships) Social (evaluation of yourself in social situations) Seven signs of a weak sense of self - sensitivity to criticism, inappropriate response to flattery, hypercritical attitude, tendency toward blaming, feelings of persecution, negative feelings about competition, tendency toward seclusion and timidly Psychological vultures - attacks a person's perceived weaknesses - Nest in six areas: intelligence, creativity, family, relationship, physical, sexual Cognitive processing - how de deal with information in relationship to our values, attitudes, and beliefs Cognitive dissonance - imbalance between your values, attitudes and beliefs (Think about a guilty conscience: real or perceived for that we will be punished or get "found out") Perceptual process - your senses collect the evidence, you organize the cues, you interpret the cues Jumping to conclusions - assuming we understand what another person thinks, feels or perceives Real self - what you think of yourself when you are being most honest with yourself Ideal self - who you would like to be or think you should be Public Self - this is the one you let others see/know Classic Theory: four aspects that make up self Spiritual (thinking feeling) Material (possession and physical surroundings) Social (interaction with others) Physical (physical being) Another theory: self evolves from interactions with others Communication apprehension - commonly referred to as shyness, communicatively anxious person - To combat: skill training, systematic de-sensitization (recognize tension, learn to relax), cognitive modification (think positively), drug therapy Chapter 6 Monday, October 7, 2013 10:18 AM Interpersonal Communications - 2 people send and receive messages Self-disclosure - intentionally letting the other person who you are by communicatingself-revealing information (Ex. Storytelling) Self-perceived I - imagine you project, the way you see yourself Other-perceivedme - collective judgment by others, person that others perceive you to be Other factors in interpersonal communication - emotions,power, gender Chapter 7 Wednesday, October 9, 2013 9:35 AM Successful Relational Communication: - I messages instead of you messages - Respond to what the other person says - Allow the other person freedom of speech - Set aside frequent talking time - Do not assign labels Communicationin Relationships: Functional system:everyonehas a role and there is structure Dysfunctional:something disturbs the functional system Relational conflict: normal, but should be handled or the relationship may end ElectronicallyMediated Communication - texts, email, facebook,etc. Better Interpersonal Online Communications: - Understand that your email may not get a response - Some email recipients don't want an overwhelmingamount of back and forth - There is no such thing as a private email communication - You can't recall an email - Abbreviations - make sure the other person understands Conversation- an interaction with at least one other person Small talk - an exchange of information at the surface level, typically lasts about 15 minutes In depth - talking about personal matters (e.g, attitudes, beliefs, goals) Questions - an important way to develop a conversation,encourage people to open up, help in discovering other people's attitudes, can be used to direct the conversation,help clarify meaning and get more information Tips for keeping a conversationgoing: turn the spotlight on the other person, listen closely for information that draws attention to an interest you both have, keep it light (especially in earlier conversations) Listening - extremelyimportant in conversations.Conversationsshould be two sided, assumptions should not be made, needs - how do you want to start the conversation(don't just jump into personal conversations) Types of conversations: - Giving directions - instructions to completea task, get somewhere,etc. ○ Spatial: Provides descriptions according to a geographical direction ○ Chronological:step by step process - Requesting - expressing a desire for something ○ Restatement(didn't understand), definitions (jargon), clarification (expanding on a point) Asking questions - asking for restatement,definitions, clarification Empathy - ability to put yourself in the "mental shoes of another person" to understand his/her feelings Conflict - "any situation in which you perceive that another person, with whom you're interdependent, Conflict - "any situation in which you perceive that another person, with whom you're interdependent, is frustrating or might frustrate the satisfaction of someconcern, need, want or desire of yours." Levels of conflict: Level 1 - no conflict Level 2 - Latent conflict (one person recognizes potential conflict, the other does not) Level 3 - Problemsto solve (mutual recognition,express concerns, no personal attack) Level 4 - dispute (there is a problem to solve, personal attacks) Level 5 - help (drawing in others to help manage and resolve) Level 6 - fight or flight (don't seek help, or help doesn't work, so then move to this stage - divorce) Level 7 - intractability (no longer interested in resolving the conflict) Chapter 8 Wednesday, October 16, 2013 9:33 AM Interview - purposeful conversationbetween two or more persons that follows a question and answer format - Interviewer(person driving the conversation) ○ Developsan interview agenda - outlines the procedures that will be followed and includes the format for the interview ○ Is good at interpreting verbal and nonverbal cues ○ Should be a good listener and not talk too much - Interviewee(person answering the questions) ○ Ask for clarification as needed ○ Restate the question in the answer ○ Answer one question at a time ○ Turn a negative into a positive Types of questions: - Direct: explicit and require specific replies (e.g., where did you last work?) - Open: less direct and only specify the topic (e.g., what is your educational background) - Closed: provide alternatives, narrowing the possibilities for response (e.g., would you like to work for this company) - Bipolar: require a yes or no answer - Leading: encourages a specific response ○ Loaded: type of leading response ○ Yes-response: encourages a yes response from the interviewer - Mirror questions: follow up on the original questions - Probing: used to elicit a more detailed response (e.g., why do you feel that way?) Types of interviews: employment,informationgathering (e.g., journalists), oral history (e.g., families can preserve their history), problem solving (e.g., challenge at work), counseling (e.g., seeing a therapist), persuasive (e.g., sales), appraisal (e.g., performance review),media Chapter 9 Monday, October 21, 2013 9:49 AM Groups - A system which is characterized by interconnectednessof its constituent parts (the individuals who make up the gro
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