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Lecture 3

CCJS 300 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: The Elegant Universe, Drug Education, Paradigm Shift


Department
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Course Code
CCJS 300
Professor
Alan Lehman
Lecture
3

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THE ELEGANT UNIVERSE; PARADIGM SHIFT
-Velocity of light is a cosmic speed
-Newton did not know how gravity actually work
-Newton’s theory predicts planets would fly off their orbits if the sun disappeared, gravity
occurs instantaneously
-Einstein knew light doesn’t travel instantaneously, nothing can travel faster than light, so how
would the planets fall out of orbit before the sun reached earth
-Warping of space time causes gravity
-Gravitational disturbance forms a wave and creates ripples, we wouldn’t feel a change until
the ripple hit the earth, the waves travel the speed of light
-Gravity is warps and curves in space and time
-Gravity travels at the speed of light: that is the paradigm shift
THE EXPERIMENTAL MODEL
-Developed out of the natural sciences, in social science, it began in psychology perceptual ,
behaviorism, mental measurement, human factors
-Best suited for two research purposes: explanation and evaluation
-Topics in CCJS:
-Arrests for domestic violence
-Drug education programs (DARE)
-Correctional boot camps, etc.
-Three steps to establishing causality (linking independent and dependent variables)
-Demonstrate that a relationship exists between key variables
-Specify the time order of the relationship
-Eliminate rival causal factors (expose spurious relationships)
-Two general types of rival causal factors
-Internal validity: did variable X (IV) produce a change in variable Y (DV)?
-External validity: can we generalize to other populations or settings?
EXPERIMENTAL & QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS FOR RESEARCH
-Campbell & Stanley, 1963
-Internal factors
-History
-Maturation
-Testing
-Instrumentation: changes in the calibration of a measurement or instrument, changes
in observers/scorers
-Statistical regression: some moderating influence that will naturally change scores
-Selection bias
-Experimental mortality
-Selection maturation interaction (the way these things interact)
-External factors
-Interactive testing effects
-Interaction of selection bias and experimental variables
-Reactive effects of experimental arrangements (Hawthorne Effect)
-People knew they were being studied/observed
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