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Lecture 21

GEOL 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Nuclear Power Plant, Mercalli Intensity Scale, Subduction


Department
Geology
Course Code
GEOL 100
Professor
Centorbi
Lecture
21

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April 12, 2019
Earthquakes
Mercalli Intensity
Measures the shaking and damage observed
5% of earthquakes are not associated with plate boundaries
Possible causes
Remnant crustal weaknesses
Failed rifts
Shear zones
Stress transmitted inboard
Isostatic adjustments
Clusters of interplate earthquakes
New Madrid
Charleston
Montreal
Adirondacks
Earthquake Damage
Severity of shaking and damage depends on
Magnitude (energy) of the earthquake (more=more)
Distance from the epicenter
Intensity and duration of the vibrations
Nature of the subsurface material
Earthquake Hazards
Liquefaction
Landslides
Fires
Disease
Examples:
Great Peruvian Earthquake in 1970
San Francisco
Haiti 2010
How does a tsunami form?
Uplift or down-drop of seafloor, displaces water
Does occur at transform faulting or divergence
In the open ocean, it travels as fast as an earthquake
Wave has a long wavelength, but a short wave height
Most destructive tsunami in human history: 2011 Tohuku (Japan) Earthquake
Huge (9.0) earthquake on subduction zone beneath Japan
Nuclear power plant on the coastline
Explosions released radioactive material in surrounding towns
Most deadly tsunami in human history: 2004 Indonesian Earthquake and Tsunami
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