[5] Civil Rights.pdf

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Government and Politics
GVPT 170
Patrick Wohlfarth

[5] Civil Rights Monday,October 7,2013 10:03 AM //ppt overview Protections THROUGH Government • Anti-slavery,desegregation/equal services,voting rights,affirmative action Two “constitutional revolutions” • Mid-19th century: Civil War & end to slavery • de jure citizenship (but segregated and far less than equal) • Mid-20th century: Civil Rights movement • desegregation,de facto voting rights (closer to equal facilities and participation) Opportunity vs.Outcomes Equality of Opportunity vs.Result • De jure Discrimination (or equality) • Specific law-> discrimination/equality • De facto Discrimination (or equality) • Social,economic,cultural biases à discrimination/equality for a long time don't have de facto though law was written on paper [didn't have until mid-20th century] Equal Protection Clause Fourteenth Amendment • Forbids states to deny equal protection of the laws to any individual within its jurisdiction. “…nor shall any State deprive any person of life,liberty,or property,without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” Application of 14th Amendment • Goals & Intent • Uncertain Guardians Important Cases Historically • Plessy v.Ferguson (1896) • Brown v.Board of Education (1954) • Supreme Court overturn • states & fed governments started to desegregate • try to promote more de facto equality Congress and Discrimination against African-Americans Civil Rights Act of 1964 • Prohibits • discrimination on the basis of race,color,religion,gender and national origin • public accommodations • voter registration • public schools • employment Civil Rights Act of 1968 • Prohibits discrimination in housing Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Outlawed discriminatory registration tests & taxes • Authorized federal administration of voting where discrimination took place • Resulted in massive voter registration drives of African Americans in the South • Recent developments–the Supreme Court & the preclearance provision (section 4) • under what conditions do you have to get preclearance before you can change your voting formula Navigating Equal Protection Disputes 3 bars.s-s the strictest,intermediate a step down
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