1. Bureaucracy Deﬁned
a. what does it do
b. what is its function
c. how bureaucrats are selected
2. Bureaucracy in the U.S.
a. how did they get their jobs
Growth over the last century
c. Types of agencies
d. The Bureaucratic Policymaking Process
3. Who Controls the Bureaucracy? Principal-Agent Problem.Bureaucracy and the separation of
a. No one?
b. The President?
E.g.congress goal: improve US environment
4. ﬁrst step: you have a goal,you want to pass a legislation
5. what else you need to do?
identify pollutants,who wants to reduce pollutants,where do the pollutants come
i. identify factories,industries,businesses
6. are you going to tell them they can't pollute?
a. by product of industrialization
7. how much they can do? what concentration of the pollution is acceptable?
a. speciﬁc rules
8. inspect,monitor the industries are following the laws
The idea behind
• it is more than just a paper of law
• bureaucracies like EPA exists to ﬁll in the details,to bring the congress law to life
• congress gets publicity by passing law but they are not the one to implement
• congressmen are not experts to ﬁll in the details in the ﬁrst place
what are the pollutants? what are the speciﬁcs?
• reduce the transaction cost
• even if they have expertise they might not want to do so
• they have a lot of other policies to deal with
CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACY • Why a Bureaucracy?
• Fill in “the details”of legislation–delegation
• Less work for Congress–transaction costs
• Common Characteristics:
• Institutional Hierarchy
• staff ranking
• Division of Labor
• giving authority to people who have more expertise
• How to manage the principal-agent relationship?
• agent may or may not do what you wanted them to
• Set of Rules
• rule-making,part of ﬁlling in the details
• adding more necessary details to the existing congressional details.
congress want the bureaucracy write its own details,experts make clear.
• congress will monitor the enforcement
• Career System
EARLY BUREAUCRACY • Federal bureaucracy was small & limited government responsibilities
• George Washington
solved Principal-Agent problems by:
• Appointing men of “character”
• at that time there was only men
• Imposed heavy ﬁnes for taking bribes
• Pretty successful,though not very democratic
• Appointees were social elites who passed jobs down to sons & nephews
Reinforced Elitism –But Sufﬁcient Loyalty?
THE EARLY BUREAUCRACY: THE SPOILS SYSTEM
-aka patronage system
• to deal with the weaknesses of the early system
• stricter control-don't pass to sons and nephew
• enforce loyalty to the federal government
• Andrew Jackson and the Spoils System–“Democratize”the bureaucracy
• Rotation in ofﬁce
• didn't have people work long enough to become expert
• Short,ﬁxed terms
• Patronage –rewards partisans
• Parties inspired & rewarded activists who helped them gain ofﬁce
Maximized Loyalty –But Enough Expertise?
// spoils system: a practice where a political party,after winning an election,gives government jobs
to its voters as a reward for working toward victory,and as an incentive to keep working for the
party-opposing to merit system
PENDLETON ACT (1883)
• Revulsion against the spoils system
• Pendleton Act in 1883
• //wikipedia The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act-stipulated that government
jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit. The act provided selection of
government employees by competitive exams, rather than ties to politicians
or political afﬁliation.they also made it illegal to ﬁre or demote government
employees for political reasons and prohibits soliciting campaign donations on
Federal government property. To enforce the merit system and the judicial
system,the law also created the United States Civil Service Commission. A