[8] Bureaucracy.pdf

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Department
Government and Politics
Course
GVPT 170
Professor
Patrick Wohlfarth
Semester
Fall

Description
[8] Bureaucracy Sunday,October 27,2013 10:59 PM THE BUREAUCRACY 1. Bureaucracy Defined a. what does it do b. what is its function c. how bureaucrats are selected 2. Bureaucracy in the U.S. a. how did they get their jobs b. Growth over the last century c. Types of agencies d. The Bureaucratic Policymaking Process 3. Who Controls the Bureaucracy? Principal-Agent Problem.Bureaucracy and the separation of power. a. No one? b. The President? c. Congress? d. Courts An example E.g.congress goal: improve US environment 4. first step: you have a goal,you want to pass a legislation 5. what else you need to do? a. identify pollutants,who wants to reduce pollutants,where do the pollutants come from i. identify factories,industries,businesses 6. are you going to tell them they can't pollute? a. by product of industrialization 7. how much they can do? what concentration of the pollution is acceptable? a. specific rules 8. inspect,monitor the industries are following the laws The idea behind • it is more than just a paper of law • bureaucracies like EPA exists to fill in the details,to bring the congress law to life • congress gets publicity by passing law but they are not the one to implement • congressmen are not experts to fill in the details in the first place • what are the pollutants? what are the specifics? • reduce the transaction cost • even if they have expertise they might not want to do so • they have a lot of other policies to deal with CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREAUCRACY • Why a Bureaucracy? • Fill in “the details”of legislation–delegation • Expertise • Less work for Congress–transaction costs • Common Characteristics: • Institutional Hierarchy • staff ranking • Division of Labor • giving authority to people who have more expertise • Delegation • How to manage the principal-agent relationship? • agent may or may not do what you wanted them to • Set of Rules • rule-making,part of filling in the details • adding more necessary details to the existing congressional details. congress want the bureaucracy write its own details,experts make clear. • congress will monitor the enforcement • Career System EARLY BUREAUCRACY • Federal bureaucracy was small & limited government responsibilities • George Washington • solved Principal-Agent problems by: • Appointing men of “character” • at that time there was only men • Imposed heavy fines for taking bribes • Pretty successful,though not very democratic • Appointees were social elites who passed jobs down to sons & nephews Reinforced Elitism –But Sufficient Loyalty? THE EARLY BUREAUCRACY: THE SPOILS SYSTEM -aka patronage system • to deal with the weaknesses of the early system • stricter control-don't pass to sons and nephew • enforce loyalty to the federal government • Andrew Jackson and the Spoils System–“Democratize”the bureaucracy • Rotation in office • didn't have people work long enough to become expert • Short,fixed terms • Patronage –rewards partisans • Parties inspired & rewarded activists who helped them gain office Maximized Loyalty –But Enough Expertise? // spoils system: a practice where a political party,after winning an election,gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory,and as an incentive to keep working for the party-opposing to merit system PENDLETON ACT (1883) • Revulsion against the spoils system • Pendleton Act in 1883 • //wikipedia The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act-stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit.[1] The act provided selection of government employees by competitive exams,[1] rather than ties to politicians or political affiliation.they also made it illegal to fire or demote government employees for political reasons and prohibits soliciting campaign donations on Federal government property.[1] To enforce the merit system and the judicial system,the law also created the United States Civil Service Commission.[1] A crucial resu
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