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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

AUniversal Christian Church 2/4/13 Roman Emperors always Christian after Constantine’s rule Roman Catholicism - City of Rome asserting itself connected to Christian religion - Patriarch- head bishops of city o Five Patriarchs: Bishops of Rome, Jerusalem, Alexandria (Egypt) Antioch, Constantinople  Sites where saints lived/ died, Jerusalem was holy city where Jesus resurrected, connections to holy power - Rome makes bid towards supremacy (only city in west, other 4 in east) o Emperor’s authority only in vague theory so Patriarch of Rome most powerful o Has good relics/ remains (of St. Peter and Paul)  St Peter was Chief among Jesus’ apostles, St Paul of author of many Xtian testaments  Rome had many martyrs o Had always been heart of old Roman Empire, should be heart of Xtianity - To Patriarchs of east, Rome was total backwater as authorities had spent less time in Rome as opposed to Constantinople which was capital of east o Claimed Rome more Pagan than Xtian o Pope Leo I (r. 440-461)- when Huns attacked in Northern Italy, Leo personally went out to meet with Atilla and successfully persuaded him to not attack Rome  When Vandals captured Rome, Leo ensured that Rome would not be seriously damaged and spare the citizens  Acquired secular role along with religious one Council of Chalcedon - Leo representatives made 3 different assertions in his name 1. St. Peter is first among Jesus’ apostles and is foundation of church b/c he said “upon you I will build my church” a. All subsequent bishops of Rome are his successors 2. As heir of Peter, bishop of Rome sets all Xtian doctrine, emperor’s job is only to protect the church a. Roman empire had traditionally been head of Xtian tradition, Xtian emperors had asserted authority over Xtian doctrine but Pope said is his job 3. b/c whole Xtian church built on Peter, bishop of Rome is leader of universal Xtian church a. Eastern + Western Churches - Bishop of Rome adopts name of “Pope” o But having 5 Patriarchs as leader of Christianity, Pope’s role in church is more significant than any Western bishop o Title of Pontifex Maximus now belong to Pope o Pope’s prominence in Western Church had strong association with being Roman (Romanness) with Christianity  Catholic Xtianity in particular (as opposed to Arian)  Barbarian tribes emphatically not Catholic Xtians, many converted to Arian Xtianity  Religious, ethnic divide between Catholic Romans and Arian Barbarians - Barbarian rulers allowed senatorial elites to maintain position, but Barbarian elites began to take over these positions and o senatorial elites lost social status and authority, but then found same kind of status and moved into position of Catholic bishops instead of civil servants o Roman elites had no competition from barbarians b/c differing religions o Assimilation is part of the trend of being Roman and Catholic Xtian increasingly seen as the same thing  City of Rome becoming more closely associated w/ church than empire Bishops were well educated as part of the elite - Xtianity message that should live spiritual lif
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