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7 The Invasions.docx

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University of Maryland
HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

The Invasions- Vikings 2/18/13 9 Century- story of economics Archaeological Revelations - Coin hoards- where people buried their cash o Locations- identify how much it circulated (signify trade networks) as where was made printed on coin - Aerial archaeology- reveal patterns can’t see from ground o Reveal walls under the ground, how plants grew - Pollen from a Peat Bog- can analyze preserved pea pollen o Wild or domestic plant (identifies types of agriculture, lots of domestic pollen= lots of agri) - Shipwrecks- Black Sea (dead zone- no oxygen, organic materials don’t decompose) o Very intact ships from centuries ago - Studying human remains o Identify disease patterns (arthritis leaves marks on bones), injury patterns (type of work), nutritional data (growth pattern of bones) o Chemical analysis of bones or mud surrounding bones Trade reversing- Trade in Western more vigorous and trade in East is declining (later 8 and 9 C) - Population growing in the west, climate improving, more intense farming and stock rearing - Increase in livestock= agricultural surplus to feed animals and keep them alive o more manure for fertilization, crops grow better and produce more food - large scale trade diminished in West in 7 C, but small scale local markets under Carolingians o know from legislations about how to control markets Vikings- pagan people from Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark) 1. Norwegians- had north near Arctic Circle, near Iceland 2. Swedes- dominate Baltic sea and down rivers of Russia by Black sea and Constantinople 3. Danes-thy Danish frontier, through north sea and hit British isles (England, Ireland, Frankland) Invasions of 9 Century attacked different parts of Western Europe - Vikings hit the West, Muslim pirates in Mediterranean, Magyars in East Vikings originally meant “trader,” now are raiders - Trade on Northern Arc- (through English channel, north sea, Baltic sea, down to rivers of Russia) - Could link into Byzantine trade routes ad East Asian trade routes (wealthy) - Vikings traded raw goods (leather, timber, fur) and got manufactured goods in return (pottery, coins) Why turned to piracy - Population boom in Scandinavia o Creates shortage of economic supported homes= incentive to seek fortunes abroad - Period of political fragmentation (Scandinavia and elsewhere in Europe) o No unified power that’s strong enough to stop Vikings - Not Xtian- different cultural patterns, no taboos about attacking Xtian monasteries (are centers of economic wealth) - Technological reasons/ breakthroughs o Scandinavian areas surrounded by water so Vikings adept at building ships o Longship- used ores and sails, don’t draw a lot of water (very little belo
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