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6 The Advent of Islam.doc

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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

The Advent of Islam 2/11/13 Arabia Northern used to be Roman but then all dominated by Bedouin (dominant ethnic group in Saudi Arabia) - nomad group, warrior society, tribaly based, Pagan - prizes heroism, poetry, bravery Islam prizes social justice and ‘umma community of Muslim believers - allowed Arab tribes to unite and successfully fight Prophet Muhammad - born in Mecca (trading city) trade in Arabia very significant (growing communication and more cosmopolitan) - wasn’t man of great status - Angel Gabriel ordered him to recite lines revealed to him o Builds religious community by sharing (merchants and slaves at first) o Preached monotheism (drawn from Judaism and Christianity) - Qur’ an- recorded in this book Pagan afraid followers would catch on - oppression of Pagans force Muhammad and followers to leave - hijra (622) the journey - percussion convinced Muhammad that cooperation between Pagans and Islam is impossible, so must convert by force o gained followers and returned to Mecca triumphant Domination of Islam spread to West Southern Mediterranean and as east as S. China Muslism conquered Jerusalem (638) - Byzantine rule Muslim rule for next 4 centuries - Christianity believes that Jerusalem is for Jesus and Islam is for Muhammad - Night Journey- Muhammad’s journey to heaven Dome of the Rock on sight of Soloman’s temple and where Muhammad began his journey - Western Wall all left of Soloman’s temple - A shrine (690) built around rock on temple platform 711- nearly total Muslim conquest of Visigoth kingdom Caliph- all united under single authority, secular and religious authority - capital- Syria held by Umayyad Caliphate Muhammad harnessed Uma’s military egos and turned outward against other groups (ethnogenesis) - neighboring partners very weak- Byzantium and Persian - both weakened because of resurgence of many wars as Persians tend to expand against Byz Religious alienation w/in Byzantine Empire - Home to many sects of Christians, seen as heretical by imperial government (faced more persecution) - But under Muslim rule, Quran recognized validity of Judaism and Christianity so treated sects of Christians well People of the Book- Jews and Christians, monotheists whose faiths are recorded in holy scripture Under Muslim domination, J and X recognized as dhimmi- protected subjects - rights give of residence, protection of life and property, religious freedom in practices, judicial autonomy in own communities - restrictions as dhimmis have to pay special tax, can’t convert others to Christian, publicly criticize Islam, can’t build new synagogues or churches o can’t ride horses, bear arms, hold public office, wear clothing to mark one’s religion o th
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