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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

Neither Holy, Nor Roman, Nor an Empire 2/27/13 Frankland (West) 9 C marked by Civil war from successors and Viking raids 10 C- power rapidly decentralizing (devolves from king onto the nobles, king getting weaker) - Carolingian kings increasingly symbolic, so partnership btwn king (symbolic force) and Frankish nobles (real force) o Nobles allowed king to have symbolic power b/c was representative of Carolingian empire and source of nobles’ legitimacy (God gave power king nobles) o Nobles were soverign powers (duke w/in own dukedom) th o Carolingian held onto throne for most of 10 C - King Huge Capet of France- comes to throne in 987 o Carolingian dynasty loses throne to Frankland, begins the new Capetian dynasty o Not a strong king, nobles picked him b/c he was weak so he wouldn’t interfere o Capetian kings of France managed to produce legitimate male heir for next 300 years Germany Carolingian dynasty struggling, royal power devolving, nobles become independent, emergence in Germany of 5 major dukedoms as centrals of power - Caro dynasty hangs on until 911, after power passes to Dukedom of Saxony - Kingship passes by appointment of election by nobles, not inheritance - Duke of Saxony hang on to power for much of 10 C Anglo- Saxons- England Saxons- Saxony th Emperor Otto I “the Great”- expands power outside of dukedom in 10 C - Centralized power and strong king Reasons for Otto’s rise to power 1. Saxony is rich (richer than Frankland) o Dukes have lot of land and gets added to what traditionally belong to crown o Can then more easily reward nobles 2. Ministrales- knights who are unfree as they belong to the king o King’s administrators, job is to run the king’s estate, manage his resources o Gives German king built in agents loyal only to him o Bishops are also used as administrators (king appoints them far from their homes to make sure he has their support if neighbors act up)  Compelled them to participate in military defense (commanders) o Literate and not in danger of having heirs 3. Uses marriage to his advantage o He and his relatives marry into almost all major Dukedom families  He rules Saxony, 3/ leftover 4 dukedoms placed into control of his relatives 4. Took advantage of Pagans on Eastern frontier o Could fight Pagan groups on the side for loot and religious prestige o Fought various groups- Danes, Slavs, and Magyars (ancestor of Hungarians) 5. Could successfully protect Germany o faced rebellions w/in Germany o Led by Otto’s son- rebellion at same time of Magyar attack so he reunited w/ king to protect Germany  Battle of the Lechfeld- Otto and german nobles met Magyars, and Otto won  Gave Otto and dynasty immense prestige o Failure to protect Frankland against Vikings was a major cause to their loss of power, so Germany succeeds in this way Otto’s subjects proclaimed him emperor, so motivated him to get crowned emperor - Became King of Germany and Italy- similar to Charlemagne - Heir to Italian throne was Empress Adelaide of Burgundy – North Italian nobles determin
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