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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

Consolidation and Unity: England and al-Andalus 2/20/13 England (didn’t exist in 9- 10 Century, was divided into 7 kingdoms) - England was under the Heptarchy- ruled by 7 - Ruled by Anglo Saxons (West Saxons- Wessex, South Saxons- Sussex, East- Essex) - Charles the Bald developed effective offensive measures to protect England areas and Vikings (the Danes) turn to England b/c less defense o 6 of kingdoms overrun and conquered, all except Wessex until 877 o Last English resistance led by o King Alfred of England, “the Great”- led last English resistance - Flee a defeat and retreat until spring, recruit others - Battle of Edington (878)- defeats the Vikings and dominating kingdoms o Converts Danish King to Christianity o Power extended to North and East, Alfred forced peace with Danes that established a frontier w/ territory of West Saxons and that of the Danes  Danelaw- portion of England under Dane’s rule - Alfred instituted many defensive programs o Instituted laws requiring land holders to build forts, serve in the army, and build bridges 1. Serve in the army  Fyrd- communal army of Wessex (army made up of people who own land so needed to establish army that’s always ready and able to work the land)  Instituted rotational service- different groups of people summoned to serve in fyrd at different times  A standing army but won’t take people away from farming for long lengths 2. Build forts- fortresses often left w/o armed men so useless against Vikings  Burh- fortified (defensive structure) town w/ a permanent garrison (armed soldiers) • Establish network of locations so no kingdom was out of reach of a burh • Designed as places for trade, many people eager to move into burhs 3. Build bridges and a navy Successors worked to get England back from Danes and rebuild English administration - Reform justice system: All judges must be able to read and that they study the law codes were enforcing - Had to decide cases based on what law says not b/c of threats, bribes, etc. - Alfred was big on education and wanted to revive Latin (teach to laity and clergy) o Launched effort to translate important texts into Anglo Saxon o He learned Latin himself and helped translate texts o Alfred consciously sought to make his kingdom like a successful Carolingian state (modeled himself on Charlemagne and reforms of early Carolingians) - Received honor from Pope when very young and was anointed as king (wanted him to be like
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