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11 A New Church for a New Millennium.docx

3 Pages

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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

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ANew Church for a New Millennium 3/11/13 Peace Movement- end violence in 10 and 11 C th th - Late 10 C- lords taking from peasants - Use Church clergy to intercede which suggests that kings have failed to keep order - End of 10 C- bishops and abbots in central France step in and hold church council (popular enthusiasm) Peace of God: main things want to change: 1. Church property should be protected so knights shouldn’t attack it 2. Clergy should be protected, knights shouldn’t attack them 3. Don’t steal peasants’ animals or all will starve (need to farm and feed everyone) - Widely popular and spread to west of Europe from France New kind of spirituality/ religiosity- high middle ages had huge outburst of piety and took Xtianity to new directions - New forms based on personal and emotional experiences of God - Originally focused on awesome power of God as emperor and judge - Now increasing focus on humanity of Jesus and his suffering (widespread use of crucifix as objects of personal piety to mediate on) - Inspires Xtians to identify with crucifixion Religious devotion to Virgin Mary takes off (empress  supremely merciful) - Intercedes with her son on behalf of those who pray to her (very passionate to sinners) - More churches dedicated to her (Notre Dame- “Our Lady”) - Gave figure Xtian women could identify with (means through which salvation in form of Jesus has entered the world) th Efforts to Reform/ Revive Monastic Practices (standard- 6 C rule of St. Benedict promoted by Pope Gregory the Great and Charlemagne) - Monks and nuns under rule of St. Benedict called Benedictines - Hampered by connections to secular mobility: - Membership: Bendictine monasteries recruit new monks/ nuns from noble classes - Donations: monasteries (fem/male) receive gifts of property/ money from secular donors in exchange for prayers/ spiritual benefits  Endow monasteries w/ extensive properties have to govern as secular lords  Makes them increasingly wealthy - Founded on huge religious seal (claim to be very pious), receive donations, more entagled with world, and early seal fades Idea to reform still based in rule of St. Benedict - Great French monastery of Cluny (founded in 910) founded by Duke of Acquitane (more powerful than king of France) then immediately renounces control of it - Leave church free of secular influences - Only authority Cluny subject to is the Pope - Slogan: “freedom of the church”- from rule from secular powers - Cluny independence becomes enormously important as is very successful - Spread to daughter monasteries dependent on Cluny - But becomes rich as people want to support holy monks and receive prayer and make donations, further from ideal rule of St. Benedict - Needs reform again b/c lost its way again - Creates huge current of religious energy b/c want to be more pious The Gregorian Reform- (NOT separation of church and state, no such thing in middle ages) - Whether church or state would be more powerful and dominant, not separate them - Not issue for just monasteries but also for secular clergy (bishops, priests) - Benedictine almost always
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