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13 The First Crusade.docx

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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

The Firth Crusade 3/27/13 Late 11 Century Church is now stronger after reforming (Gregorian reform) - Enhanced Western Europe’s sense of being part of Xtiandom East 11thC new Muslim Power Seljuk Turks- central Asian people, come to dominate central Muslim power in East (Aabasid caliphate- city of Baghdad) - Extended power westward, conquer Jerusalem (had been under Muslim control since 638- o conquered Fatamids held until 1071 and Turks conquer from them Pilgrimage-devotional journey to visit holy site/shrine (gaining popularity in Europe) - From Western Europe to Jerusalem were increasing - Seljuks attacked Xtian pilgrims (Fatamids had allowed them to enter freely) Emperor Alexius I Comnenus asks the West for help (went to Pope instead of HRE) - Seljuks also won against the Byzantine Empire (put imperial power into jeopardy) Pope Urban II- in 1095 Pope was in France to preside over Peace Council in town of Clermont - Afterwards addresses large crowd of French nobles about the East o Urban said there would be spiritual benefits to going east o Described the endeavor as a pilgrimage o Offer spiritual benefices to people who went on pilgrimage - People in back rely on people closer to Pope on what he said so recounting of speech is different o Thought that primary object of crusade was to free Jerusalem from Muslim rule (not what Alexius asked for- wanted help in Asian Minor to help fight Turks) o Interpreted offer of spiritual benefits as guarantee that crusade was free pass to heaven o Going on crusade was good for soul b/c better to fight Muslims abroad than Christians at home (reduce violence w/in Europe)  Violence among knights and nobles still occurring, so should use skills to good cause - Effect of combination of idea: thought it was an armed pilgrimage (“crusade” develops later) - Crowd at Clermont strongly responded with “Deus lo volt!”- God wills it o Put cloth crosses on clothes to symbolize intention to go on crusade o Urban went on speaking tour of France where met w/ same enthusiasm Popular Crusade- Fire by religious zeal, wave of common people followed knights and nobles to battle before main armies had completed armies to leave - Women also joined the crusade, not what Urban wanted o Urban specified call to only knights and nobles (Alexius just wanted military help) - First wave passes through Germany- as long as travel to attack Muslims, might as well kill Jews too o Series of Pogroms- massacre of Jews o Trouble in Xtian- Jew relations o Crusades to come always accompanied by anti- Jewish violence - Reached Constantinople before main Crusade army and Alexius sent them to Asian Minor where they were slaughtered by Turks Main Crusade army led by important nobles - Prince Bohemond of Taranto (Norman kingdom of Sicily) - Crusade led by nobles (Pope sends bishop as representative, and no Kings leading first Crusade) o Kings not wealthy enough and feared losing power if led Crusade - When reach the East, expected Alexius to show them support but was unhappy o However, he only expected small military reinforcement and got huge army of kngihts, nobles, commoners, priests, etc (100,000 people) o
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