Class Notes (838,038)
United States (325,279)
History (151)
HIST 111 (24)
Lecture

13 The First Crusade.docx

3 Pages
59 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIST 111
Professor
Janna Bianchini
Semester
Spring

Description
The Firth Crusade 3/27/13 Late 11 Century Church is now stronger after reforming (Gregorian reform) - Enhanced Western Europe’s sense of being part of Xtiandom East 11thC new Muslim Power Seljuk Turks- central Asian people, come to dominate central Muslim power in East (Aabasid caliphate- city of Baghdad) - Extended power westward, conquer Jerusalem (had been under Muslim control since 638- o conquered Fatamids held until 1071 and Turks conquer from them Pilgrimage-devotional journey to visit holy site/shrine (gaining popularity in Europe) - From Western Europe to Jerusalem were increasing - Seljuks attacked Xtian pilgrims (Fatamids had allowed them to enter freely) Emperor Alexius I Comnenus asks the West for help (went to Pope instead of HRE) - Seljuks also won against the Byzantine Empire (put imperial power into jeopardy) Pope Urban II- in 1095 Pope was in France to preside over Peace Council in town of Clermont - Afterwards addresses large crowd of French nobles about the East o Urban said there would be spiritual benefits to going east o Described the endeavor as a pilgrimage o Offer spiritual benefices to people who went on pilgrimage - People in back rely on people closer to Pope on what he said so recounting of speech is different o Thought that primary object of crusade was to free Jerusalem from Muslim rule (not what Alexius asked for- wanted help in Asian Minor to help fight Turks) o Interpreted offer of spiritual benefits as guarantee that crusade was free pass to heaven o Going on crusade was good for soul b/c better to fight Muslims abroad than Christians at home (reduce violence w/in Europe)  Violence among knights and nobles still occurring, so should use skills to good cause - Effect of combination of idea: thought it was an armed pilgrimage (“crusade” develops later) - Crowd at Clermont strongly responded with “Deus lo volt!”- God wills it o Put cloth crosses on clothes to symbolize intention to go on crusade o Urban went on speaking tour of France where met w/ same enthusiasm Popular Crusade- Fire by religious zeal, wave of common people followed knights and nobles to battle before main armies had completed armies to leave - Women also joined the crusade, not what Urban wanted o Urban specified call to only knights and nobles (Alexius just wanted military help) - First wave passes through Germany- as long as travel to attack Muslims, might as well kill Jews too o Series of Pogroms- massacre of Jews o Trouble in Xtian- Jew relations o Crusades to come always accompanied by anti- Jewish violence - Reached Constantinople before main Crusade army and Alexius sent them to Asian Minor where they were slaughtered by Turks Main Crusade army led by important nobles - Prince Bohemond of Taranto (Norman kingdom of Sicily) - Crusade led by nobles (Pope sends bishop as representative, and no Kings leading first Crusade) o Kings not wealthy enough and feared losing power if led Crusade - When reach the East, expected Alexius to show them support but was unhappy o However, he only expected small military reinforcement and got huge army of kngihts, nobles, commoners, priests, etc (100,000 people) o
More Less

Related notes for HIST 111

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit