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10 The Y1K Problem.docx

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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

The Y1K Problem 3/4/13 9 /10 Century- all of Europe Lordship- a system where weaker but free person seeks protection form a stronger one, receives protection in return for service and loyalty - becomes increasingly central to culture/ society in 9/10 C - Used instead of “feudalism” - Lord- stronger person giving protection - Vassal- weaker person who gives service - Agreement between lord and vassal is represented in a ritual in which vassal does homage (“manning”, becomes somebody’s man, act of kneeling down and holding up hands like a prayer, lord puts hands around vassal’s) and swears fealty (faith, swearing faith to loyalty) o Sealed with kiss on the mouth th o Position of prayer becomes normalized around 12 C (do homage to God), standard during medieval period was raising both arms in air - Reciprocity- vassal and lord both owe each other something individually o Counsel and aid- owe each other advice and actual physical/ military help o Benefice- lord gives to vassal in return for service  Often land but could also be money or jewelry, but more often land with time  Acts as a reward as well as an assurance of loyalty- if vassal doesn’t do service, lord can take back the benefice 10 C (year 1000) change in Lordship - Nobles in W Europe (Frankland) exercising powers previously held by kings- mini- monarchs o Originally in response to Viking invasions, as kings become weaker lords supply justice o Breakdown of rule/ law- Over time power exercised less through law and administration as personal, willful actions of lords and their men - Lordship not institutional, based on personal relationships and loyalty - Symbol and weapons of power are castles and horses Motte and Bailey Castles- best fortification for protection against Vikings - Biggest archaeological changes are that castles being built everywhere - Motte- big artificial hill of dirt w/ the keep (fortified structure) at the top - Bailey- area enclosed by stockade, whatever inside the fence - Wooden castles, not stone until 11 Ch Protect castle by putting soldiers on horses (on foot not effective against Vikings) - Stirrup- loop hanging down on saddle to put foot into, can fight more effectively and stay on horse - Horses can carry more weight= better weapons and better armor (chainmail, sword, spear, shield) Knight- social class of men trained to be mounted warriors - Need for wealth + training: Have to be wealthy b/c equipment is expensive - Vast social divide between knight and peasant o Must be trained from childhood to be a knight o No mobility between classes and peasants, unlikely to become knights - When Viking invasions stop- knights fight each other for local lords to expand wealth, low- level warfare o Knights start to plunder peasants- bad lordship o Growth in lordly power (decentralization of power) Serfs- unfree (can’t be boug
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