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16 From Jerusalem to Constantinople.docx

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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

From Jerusalem to Constantinople 4/8/13 Crusading ideologies evolve and help create idea of a unified but threatened Christiandom The Fall of Edessa 1144- Muslims conquer one of Crusader Settlements: Edessa - Second Crusade- called by Pope - Bernard of Clairvaux embarked on preaching tour around Europe urging people to go on crusade - Highest duty of knight is to fight for God Military Orders: Knight + Monk= Benedictine monks who did military service as knights: o Backbone of armies in East - Templars- Solomon’s temple (headquarters), - Hospitallers ran a hospital that pilgrims could live in (safety) - Knighthood can be sanctified First Crusade led by nobles, Second crusade led by monarchs - Monarchs: Louis 7 of France and King Conrad III of Germany Second Crusade fought on 3 fronts - Shift on who crusade enemies is - Retaking Edessa won’t protect surviving states so attack Emirate of Damascus (b/c border kingdom of Jerusalem) o Muslims who rule Damascus already threatened by conquest of Edessa, 1140s allied with Jerusalem (Damascus was friendliest) o But Crusaders defeated so Damascus surrended itself to leader who ruled Edessa Wends? Muslim Syria 2 major power groups Holy Land - Muslims Syria (unified combination of Domascus, etc.) and Crusaders States + Byzantium - Second crusade accomplished little - Wendish Front and Iberia Front (most successful, numerous cities conquered including Lisbon) - Reconquista- expansion of Xtian kingdoms of Iberia at expense of Muslim powers there o Reflect Xtian belief that retaking land unrightly conquered by Muslims (but already belonged to them for 4 centuries) o Reconquista not steady progression, was very slow and moments of victory for both sides, and Iberians as likely to fight each other as well as with Muslims nd After 2 Crusade 1170s-80s, Muslim Syria united by Egypt under Salah ad- Din Yusuf (Saladin) - Surrounded Muslim kingdom of Jerusalem - Succession of Jerusalem contested between Baldwin’s sisters: internal conflict - Byzantium weakened by defeat from Turks - Strongest Xtian states are weak, Saladin at advantage so got big army and met united armies of crusader states at Battle of Hattin at 1187 (Saladin victorious) o Took true cross (where Jesus died) and had all templars and hospitallers killed o Infantry captured and sold as slaves, broke military power Besieged and conquered Jerusalem in 1187 too - Held western Xtian population to ransomed them, freed some who couldn’t meet ransom and others sold as slave (not Western not harmed at all) - Demand for new Western crusade: appealed to kings o Philip Augustus of France, King Richard I of England (The Lionhearted), Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa responded rd o Byzantine empire already made treaty w/ Saladin when promised to destroy 3 crusade  But plot failed and Frederick Barbarossa got to Asian minor, then P
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