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18 The Lord- King.docx

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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

The Lord- King 4/15/13 What makes kingdoms (un)successful and in what get reorganization of powers of Middle Eastern states England th - Strong centralized organization 12 C, broke after King Richard died - His successor was younger brother, King John of England - Inherited kingdom of less money, and enemy of France (Philip Augustus) - Held a lot of territory in France, Philip capitalized on dual role as king and lord - Angevins were sovereign lords, John it technically vassal of French king (on pretext he committed a crime, he must go to court where Philip tries the case) o John doesn’t attend so he attacked and confiscated back most of land o Spends 10 years trying to get land back (while taxing England to support plans) Battle of Bouvines at 1214 - Philip Augustus won crushing defeat against John and his allies - Permantently lose control of several French holdings (Normandy and Aujus) - English nobles revolted against John, John gave England to Pope as papal territory in exchange for defense o 1215- nobles forced him to sign Magna Carta o King of England only had Aquitaine left and in mid 13 C, he signed treaty where officially became vassal of French King Holy Roman Empire- only power that’s in decline 1. Growing power of German nobles 2. Conflicts over Italy - HRE rulership is elected, claim to rule northern Italy - Frederick Barbarosa adds S Italy to his realm by marrying son to Constance (heir to Norman kingdom) - Emperor Frederick II- not too young to inherit kingdom of Sicily through his mother o His guardian was the Pope (Innocent III) o Pope backed Frederick’s rival for the empire b/c was already king of Sicily and didn’t want HRE under same ruler (b/c surrounds Papal States in N. Italy) o But HRE’s new ruler invaded Sicily and Pope supported Frederick again - King John of England and Otto of Bruswick vs King Philip Augustus, Frederick II, Pope - Frederick II becomes emperor of HRE and Sicily (but too much power, Popes decided must lose control of Sicily) o Papal States guarantee that weren’t under secular rule (separation of church & state) so security of states was necessary condition for spiritual freedom of church o Bitter conflict btwn Frederick and Papal States in Italy o When Frederick died HRE died with him, German nobles made most of war and became stthng, every imperial decision was strongly contested as many killed (didn’t recover til 15 C) Iberi
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