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21 New Paths to Faith and Power.docx

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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

New Paths to Faith and Power 4/24/13 Pope Innocent III - ~1200 normal for Popes to be lawyers (well- educated and intellectual) - Product of 2 best institutions of the century, came to the papacy at young age - Fullness of Power- believed Pope had right to do whatever he wanted (within Church and over secular powers) o Accepted Kingdom of England from King John - Fourth Lateran Council- 1215 (also date of Magna Carta) o Most important church council that tried to set big rules for church and society o Formalizes major church doctrine i. Every Xtian has duty to make confession and take communion once a year ii. Requires priest to educate every member of his parish of what true Xtian believes (effort to combat heresy) iii. Change to consanguinity (incest)- now can’t marry anyone w/in 4 degrees of kinship (prohibits a lot of royal marriages) - Exceptionally interested in marriage (forced apart many marriages) iv. New restrictive legislation against the Jews - Reflects view of papacy as wants to extend rule over secular rulers, fight heresy by educating people on what orthodox faith is, wants to protect Xtiandom from phobias (Jews) Church establish Medieval Inquisition as heretical movements represented emergency (especially worried about Cathars in S. France) - 1200- S France had little central authority (independent from King of France) - Allowed Catharism (Albingensians- people from Albany) to take route and flourish - 1208- few years after fourth Crusade (1204)- Innocent calls full crusade against Cathars b/c not satisfied w/ preachers’ results o Albigensian Crusade- Goal is to remove heretics from S France and replace w/ Catholic inhabitants o Seen as an economic opportunity (new property w/ each heretic found) o Spiritual incentive- anyone who joined crusade would get same spiritual rewards as those who went on crusade to holy land - War dragged on for years and enthusiasm faded (Rome then lost interest) o Kings of France successfully stepped in around 1220s and their victories took control of S. France as major gain of territory and power for French kings - Church interfered when secular powers and preaching missions not doing enough - Plain association of crusade ideology w/ fear of heresy (attacked Byz b/c were heretics) - Albigensian never came close to eliminating Cathars, so only empowered French Kings - Church realized need to fight heresy differently after Pope received 2 new opportunities Mendicant Orders (the begging orders) St. Dominic- well educated Castilian, encountered church’s unsuccessful preaching missions - Dominicans- new religious order dedicated to fighting heresy - Friar- “brother,” regular clergy who live under a rule, not monks, traveled and constantly interacting w/ lay people - Order was very rigorous- often fasted, had to maintain long periods of silence, strictly vegetarian o Paralleled extreme asceticism of Cathars o Had heavy influence on poverty (no physical possessions) and begged for food (contrast
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