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HIST 111
Janna Bianchini

Europe in a New World 5/6/13 Late 15 Century- major shifts in economy, society, culture *Reemergence of strong centralized monarchies England- 1453 (ends of Hundred’s Years War where French win) - England driven out of France almost entirely - Civil War then breaks out in England btwn noble houses of York (white rose)and Lancaster (red rose) o Each claim to be rightful heir to England throne o 1455- War of the Roses - Resolution happens when York and Lancaster both fall to Tudor Dynasty - England really wanted order/ stability to Tudor benefitted by capitalizing on it (took Parliament, nobles, church, royal administration firmly under his control) o Strong centralized monarchy w/ lasting public order France- Parliament lost much power/ stature b/c elites associated parliamentary rule w/ popular unrest (on side of peasant revolts) - Dukes/ Counts independent of royal authority - King Louis XI of France, “the Spider King”- supported by French towns - Reasserted authority over nobles by assigning marriages, prestigious administrative positions to secure loyalty, assassinations on criminal charges - French control over unified kingdom Iberia- Portugal, Castile, Aragon - Castile and Aragon unite to create modern Spain - Queen Isabel I of Castile married King Fernando II of Aragon - Combined resources of the kingdoms made them a formidable force, asserted authorities over nobles and cortes, built strong centralized monarchy - Unity expanded power externally to create unified culture internally o External: complete the Reconquista (kingdom of Granada remains, wanted to conquer it), Portugal launching expeditions to find new trading routes and they wanted to too o Internal: Anti- Jewish sentiment (forced conversions), large population of Xtians who had converted from Judaism (Xtian heretics- still practice Judaism after being baptized), hostile towards those converted from Jud to X, - Spanish Inquisition- medieval inquisition lead by Pope, but this lead by Spanish Monarchs o Interested in converts secretly practicing Judaism (heretical X), no jurisdiction over actual Jews, - 1492 o Monarchs completed conquest of Kingdom of Granada (Reconquista ended) o Edict of Expulsion- decreed all Jews in Spain had to leave, convert, or die (left to Muslim lands) o Christopher Columbus- Spanish monarchs fund his exploration Italian Renaissance - Wanted to revive cultural, political life of classical Rome - Mid 14 C HRE no longer significant player, papacy lost standing, Renaissance thinkers discouraged - Romans had virtue but modern world doesn’t - Humanism- improving world by reviving Roman republic and virtues o Idea spread and Italy surpassed France as cultural center of Europe Gun/ Compass/ Printing Press Mongol empire in decline and replaced by Ottoman Turks (Byz empire in decline and can’t fight back OTs) - 1453- Sultan Mehmed II- lays siege to Constantinople - Ottomans built very powerful cannon designed to take down Constantinople’s walls - Ottoman Empire becomes Byzantine Empire o Fall of eastern roman empire to the Ottomans o Castles/ horses switched for artillery/ guns Compass invented in Italy (tool for sailing on open sea) - Medieval sailing done by coastline so still have landmarks, not good for voyages - Ottoman less friendly to merchants crossing to east, need new sail route - Portugal sailors go south around Africa to Indian ocean (direct trade to eastern Asia) - Europe no longer centered just around the Mediterranean Printing Press- movable type- indvl letters set up in slots to print one page - 1455- Johann Gutenberg- published the Gutenberg bible using the printing press - Political consequences- Martin Luther- disillusioned by corruption of papacy and wanted to reform Catholic church o 1517- nailed 95 thesis of reform, starting revolution, Protestant Reformation o Ideas wouldn’t have been widely read if weren’t for printing press Take Aways 1. Monarchs recover from crisis of 14 C and resume the centralizing process that began in the 12 Ch 2. Italy becomes the center of European culture after the Italian Renaissance, major shift from France based culture of middle ages. Also changes the ideal of Rome b/c it focuses on the Roman republic as a model, not the Roman Empire. 3. Improved technologies signaled other big social shifts, compass makes worldwide exploration possible, the printing press enables mass communication and production of knowledge
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