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PSYC 221 (79)
Lecture 20

PSYC 221 Lecture 20: Inter-Group Behavior
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 221
Professor
Dylan Selterman
Semester
Spring

Description
• Social Identity Theory o Self-concept; Identity o Relatedness needs ▪ Connectivity, intimacy, bonding o You define yourself based on what groups you belong to o Groups provide support and protection o Patriotism and in-group pride are a buffer against social stigma and stress o Fulfillment/meaning in Groups ▪ Self-worth/Basking in Reflected Glory • Intergroup Behavior o Minimal group effects (Minimal group paradigm) ▪ Without doing anything else, people have a bias to like their own group over other groups ▪ Bias in resource allocation ▪ In-group similarity, out-group dissimilarity ▪ In-group variance, out-group homogeneity • Known as in-group/out-group bias • This exists for almost every group • Why are groups competitive? o Trans-generational norms ▪ Observation and modeling • Sports teams, teams, classes, etc. ▪ Historical conflict ▪ Bias in learning • Focus on own-group struggles • Intergroup competition o Robber’s Cave study ▪ Induce competition in boys’ camp ▪ Separate group bonding ▪ Conflict outside of regular organized camp activities o Recuing conflict ▪ Giving information to help relate to the other group • Failed ▪ Contact • Failed • Caveat: extended research ▪ Common goals • Success ▪ Common enemy • Success o Conclusion: Realistic Conflict Theory ▪ Groups will compete when they have reason to compete; groups will cooperate when they have reason to cooperate • Group schemas o Stereotypes – schemas based on group membership ▪ Ethnicity, location, affiliation, etc. ▪ Not always negative • Stereotypes and motivation o Cognitive load ▪ Increases reliance on stereotypes o Stereotype activation ▪ Increases processing speed ▪ “Stereotypers categorize because it requires too much mental effort to individuate” o Motivated reasoning ▪ Effort to maintain stereotypes; counter-examples ▪ Sub-typing • We don’t change our stereotypes when we are confronted with contrary evidence, we just make exceptions • Stereotypes o Stereotype threat and stereotype lift ▪ Simply knowing about stereotypes changes behavior ▪ Affects behavior, performance, learning ▪ Women are less good at math, making women salient of their gender makes them worse on math tests ▪ Defeated by focusing on multiple identities ▪ Also for dominant/majority groups • Christians, for example o But, positive stereotypes can be harmful ▪ Depersonalization • Need for uniqueness and autonomy o People feel as if they lose their individ
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