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PSYC 221 (79)
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PSYC 221

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Chapter 12 Power and Violence 11/15/2013 Social power=ability to influence behavior of others and resist their influence on us I. Sources of Power person does not have to possess desired resources, just needs access to them relationship partners control access to interpersonal rewards(affection) The greater the others’ desire, the more power the other has Principle of lesser interest=person who has less interest in continuing relationship has more power in relationship Women have more power over sex than men b/c men desire it more Availability of alternatives influences balance of power Larger imbalance if one partner has few alternatives and other has many Husbands have higher CLalts than women b/c work outside home more Encounter more ppl, have more money to sway them Interdependency theory has two broad types of power 1. Fate control: control partners outcomes no matter what 2. Behavior control: change own behavior to sway partner to change theirs Interactions of partners emerge from mutual influence on each other(counterpowering) II. Types of Resources 1. Reward power: give them something they like or take away what they don’t like 2. Coercive Power: in form of punishments, do something partner doesn’t like or take away what they do 3. Legitimate power: recognize partners authority to tell them what to do 4. Referent power: identify with partner, feel attracted and want to remain close 5. Expert power: have broad understanding partner desires 6. Informational power: possess specific knowledge partner desires III. Men, Women and Control of Resources 1. Disparity in relative resources b/c men get paid more than women More money leads to reward and legitimate power Universalistic resources are like money, exchanged b/t anyone and whoever controls them decides what to do with it Particularistic resources are like love and are only valuable in some situations and only gives power over particular partners 2. Social norms support and maintain male dominance women viewed as having the capabilities to have legitimate authority but it is seen as unladylike b/c she is seeking power in politics or any job 3. Are not sure what equality looks like b/c division of labor does not value wives’ and husbands’ time equally: wives duties constant, husbands are intermittent men have coercive power b/c of larger size and strength but partners who are coerced are less compromising if partner was gentler(bad way to influence partner) IV. Process of Power Better mood, higher self esteem, more control, initiate negotiations more, not good at comprehending others’ point of view If ppl feel powerful, they pursue more attractive mates than they would if not powerful Powerful ppl judge others’ moral transgressions more harshly than own(condemn others cheating, but cheat more themselves) Conversation Between Intimate Partners Women don’t speak up with strength, allow men to interrupt more and men end up speaking more in conversation….shows women have less power Nonverbal Behavior Powerful ppl use larger distances, intense facial expressions, less symmetrical postures Nonverbal Sensitivity Women decode nonverbal behavior better & more aware of others’ feelings Powerful ppl don’t have to care what less powerful is feeling but subordinate can increase their own power if they monitor mood of supervisor(when to make request) Styles of Power Sometimes ppl explicity ask partner what they want and other times they hint at what they want or when their wishes are unfulfilled…indirectness leads to less satisfying relationship Extent to which ppl sought goals through interacting with partners Bilateral strategies involves the couple, efforts to persuade or collaborate(more powerful people feel they do this) Unilateral strategies do what individual wants(less powerful people do this) Straight men used direct strategies more, straight women used indirect(gender difference) Status matters: experts used more direct strategies but they used indirect when they were novices. This did not differ in sexes. No differences in gays with influencing partner Roles are changing, more women working, higher in instrumentality, more political power V. The Outcome of Power Male authority and assertion and female conformity seem so natural, hard to detect imbalances of power Women have larger increases in happiness and more declines in conflict and less proneness to divorce when powe
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