PSYC300 Need to Know Terms.docx

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University of Maryland
PSYC 330
Andrea Chronis- Tuscano

PSYC300 Need to Know Terms CHAPTER 1 Empirical- based on systematic collection and analysis of data Hindsight Bias- to think could’ve predicted something when find out results, that probably couldn’t have Basic Research- answers fundamental questions about behavior Applied Research- investigates issues that have implications for everyday life and provide solutions Behavioral Research Descriptive Research- to answer questions about current state of affairs - Surveys, interview, naturalistic observations Qualitative Research- focused on observing and describing events as they occur to understand everyday behavior Quantitative Research- formal measures of behavior (questionnaires and systematic observation of behavior designed to be subjected to statistical analysis Converging Operations- using more than one technique to study the same thing in hope that all of the approaches will produce similar findings CHAPTER 2 Inductive method- observing specific facts to form a more general idea about relationships Deductive method- process of using theory to generate specific ideas Laws- principles that are so general as to apply to all situations Theory- an integrated set of principles that explains and predicts many observed relationships w/in a given domain of inquiry Parsimonious- the simple possible account of those outcomes Falsifiable- the variables of interest can be measured and the relationship can be show to be wrong Tautological- variables can’t be measured or the variables are vague enough that can’t provide information to falsify theory Research Hypothesis- a specific and falsifiable prediction regarding relationship between variables CHAPTER 3- Ethics in Research Informed Consent- to provide freedom of choice and reducing psychological stress from participation - Describe procedures, foreseeable risks, benefits, confidentiality Simulation Study- participants fully informed about nature of research and asked to behave as if they were in a social setting of interest Debriefing- occurs right after study ends to explain the purposes and procedures of research and remove any harmful aftereffects of participation Postexperimental Interview- participants’reactions to research are assessed to express thoughts about research - Indicate if they were suspicious and experienced what was expected Suspicion Check- questioning participants to determine whether they believed the experimental manipulation or guessed the hypothesis Process Debriefing- active attempt to undo any changes that might have occurred Institutional Review Board (IRB)- determine whether proposed research meets department regulations - Determines cost/ benefit ratio Studies Must 1. Provide freedom of choice 2. Maintain awareness of power differentials (avoid abuse of power) 3. Honestly describe nature and use of research CHAPTER 4 Conceptual Variables- ideas that form the basis of a research hypothesis - Parenting style, self-esteem, depression Measured Variables- consists of numbers that represent the conceptual variables Operational Definition- precise statements of how a conceptual variable is turned into a measured variable Nominal Variable- used to name or identify a particular characteristic Interval Scale- equal distances between scores on a measure are known to correspond to equal changes in conceptual variable Ratio Scales- interval scale with true zero point Ordinal Scale- numbers indicating whether there is more or less of the conceptual variable Self- Report Measures- individuals asked to respond to questions posed by an interview or a questionnaire Behavioral Measures- designed to directly measure what people do Free format self- report measures- allow respondents to indicate whatever thoughts or feelings they have about topic w/o constraints Projective Measure- measure of personality in which unstructured image (inkblot or sketches of people engaging in behaviors) are shown and participant must list what comes to mind Think- aloud protocol- asked to verbalize into tape recorder thoughts they have as complete a task Fixed format self- report measures- individual presented with a set of questions and responses are more structured Likert Scale- series of items that indicate dis/agreement w/ issue being measured Acquiescent Responding- “yeah saying bias” who just agree with everything Semantic Differential- topic being evaluated is presented and items consist of pairs of adjectives and must choose between two endpoints Guttman Scale- fixed format self- report scale where items get more difficult b/c if endorses/ answers correctly and one item then will correctly answer all previous ones Reactivity- changes in responding when individuals known they are being measured Social Desirability- natural tendency to present oneself in a positive, acceptable way Self- Promotion- participants respond in ways that think will make them look good Behavioral Measurement Variables: - Frequency, duration, intensity, latency. Speed Nonreactive Behavioral Measures- indirect measures so participants unaware what’s designed to be assessed and does not realize that the measurement is occurring Psychophysiological measures- designed to assess the physiological functioning of the body’s nervous and endocrine system CHAPTER 5 Random Error- change fluctuations in the measurement (caused by misreading of questions, measurement of individuals on different days/places, misreporting) - Self- canceling by increasing the scores of some and decreasing score of others Systematic Error-variables systematically increase or decrease scores on measured variables - Ex. Indvls w/ high self esteem score systematically lower on anxiety and optimistic indvls score higher Reliability- extent to which measure is free from random error, should be consistent Test- Retest Reliability- extent that scores on same measured variable correlate w/ each other on two different measurements given at two different times Retesting effects- produce reactivity b/c similar measures being given twice cause responses to be influenced by first time Equivalent forms reliability- two different but equivalent versions of same measure given at different times Traits- conceptual/personality variables that aren’t expected to va
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