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PSYC 353 (38)
Richard Yi (15)

Chapter 4- The Research Endeavor.docx

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PSYC 353
Richard Yi

Chapter 4: The Research Endeavor 9/18/12 Scientific Method 1. Defining a problem or question 2. Specifying a testable hypothesis 3. Choosing a method 4. Operationalizing the variables (ind/predictor, dep/outcomes) Ethical Issues - Ex. Tuskegee Syphilis Study - Informed Consent o Understanding the study o Right to refuse or withdraw - Confidentiality - Deception - Debriefing Institutional Review Board - Consists of scientists and non- scientists who oversee research involving human participants - Evaluates the consideration of ethical issues - Emphasizes protection of vulnerable populations - Consider cost/benefit of studies Case Studies- detailed histories of individual cases - Used to understand experiences of single individuals Correlational Studies- two or more variables are measured and the statistical relationship between them is examined - Does not imply causation Statistical Significance - p-value is an index of how likely a result is due to chance - Statistical significance vs clinical significance Epidemiological Studies- study the frequency and distribution of a disorder - Prevalence rates- proportion of population having disorder - Incidence rates- how many new cases in a unit of time - Risk factors- conditions associated w/ increased likelihood of having disorder o Women more at risk if more likely to have disorder Cross- Cultural Studies- measure two different cultures and determine how they differ Advantages - Acknowledge and examine possible differences between cultures Disadvantages - Access - Concepts and theories can
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