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Lecture

Chapter 8- Schizophrenia and Other Related Illnesses.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 353
Professor
Richard Yi
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 8: Schizophrenia and Other Related illnesses Serotonin- feelings of well- being or happiness Dopamine- feelings of reward driven learning Psychosis- gross impairment in reality testing - Incorrect evaluation of the accuracy of perceptions/ thoughts, sense of what’s going on in the real world is altered o In face of contrary evidence, falsely interpret things - Symptoms of psychosis chronic in depression, dementia, etc (not just schizophrenia) 4 Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia (excess or distortion of normal functions) Hallucinations: sensory experiences that should not be happening - Auditory (most common)- hear things aren’t there o Hear voices/ noises, running commentary on what’s going on in the world - Visual - Olfactory- smell - Gustatory- taste - Tactile- feel Delusions: problems with the content in THOUGHT - Bizarre Delusions- clearly implausible in one’s culture o Express a loss of control over one’s mind or body  Thought insertion- thoughts are being put into your head  Thought withdrawal- thoughts are taken away by outside force  Thought broadcasting- your own thoughts broadcasted to world  Delusions of control- body/ actions being acted on by outside force o Ex. Alien abducted you and was probed - Non- Bizarre Delusions- possible, but unlikely and not reality o Delusion of…  Grandeur- believe have great, unrecognized talent others can’t see (a prophet)  Jealousy- despite any evidence to contrary, believe someone cheating on you  Persecution- you are being conspired against, being spied upon, followed, harassing you  Somatic- misperceptions of body, believe smell bad, parts of body infested by insects, parts are misshapen  Erotomanic- being loved by someone else, by a celebrity  Reference- comments or gestures, passages from books are referring to you o Ex. Believe group of individuals that hate you and goal is to make life miserable Disorganized Speech - “Formal Thought Disorder”- indicates dysfunction in thought o Incoherence (word salad)- frequent derailment, sentences not connected and abnormal sentence structure (adj, verb, noun) o Neologisms- made up words o Loose Associations- derailment and can’t stay on topic, goes off on tangents, occurs abruptly Disorganized Behavior - Grossly Disorganized: problems in goal- directed behavior - Exhibit child- like behaviors, get extremely agitated, hygienic behavior, difficulty making meals (spaghetti) - Catatonia- lack of responsiveness to environment o Stupor- complete unawareness of environment  on crowded metro swing arms around b/c not responsive to environment o Rigidity- maintains rigid posture and resists attempts to be moved o Negativism- active resistance to instruction and attempts to be moved (physically, or w/ words) o Posturing- bizarre postures o Excitement- excessive motor activity Negative Symptoms- diminishment or absence of characteristic/ normal functioning - Affective flattening- near absence of emotional response to environment o Not emotionally responsive to happy stimuli - Alogia- poverty of speech or in content of speech o Speaks very little or not at all, engage in repetitive speech - Avolition- can’t initiate or persist in any goal orientated actions, o lack of volition in behaviors (A= absence of) Schizophrenia Considerations - Cognitive Symptoms: deficient in basic cognitive processes, including attention and memory o Deficit in working memory- can’t take pieces of info and manipulate them - No one symptom is pathognomic- every symptom can be observed in at least 1 other disorder - Symptoms change over time - Cultural considerations o Ex. If feeling like ants all over body is accepted in culture, then won’t be considered symptom b/c is common factor Schizophrenia Subtypes - Paranoid- delusions or frequent hallucinations (usually auditory, of grandeur and prosecution) o No speech or affect problems o Usually very little cognitive impairment on testing o Best prognosis of all subtypes, really characterizes schizophrenia and is most isolated - Disorganized- disorganized speech or behavior o Flat or grossly inappropriate affect, act silly inconsistent with situation o Impairment on cognitive tests o Usually earlier onset, few remissions in course (insidious and continue) - Catatonic- psycho- motor disturbances o Motoric immobility- physically be “waxy” and won’t move on their own but if move them then will leave where left body part  extreme negativism- active resistance to movement, rigid posture, mute (malnourished because won’t eat) o Excessive motor activity- moving too much and not affected by external stimuli (ex. Head banging, and will cause exhaustion) o Stereotyped movements- individual has peculiarity with movement and is the same every time  Move in and out of posture in specific ways, prominent posture, o Echolalia- repetition
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