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Chapter 14- Substance- Related and Impulse- Control Disorders.docx

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PSYC 353
Richard Yi

Chapter 14: Substance- Related and Impulse- Control Disorders Substances- any natural or synthesized substance w/ psychoactive effects (changes perceptions, thoughts, emotions or behaviors) - Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants- alcohol - CNS Stimulants- caffeine - Opioids- heroin - Hallucinogens- PCP - Cannabis- marijuana DEPRESSANTS - slow down CNS - Includes alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates and inhalants o Prescribed for anxiety disorders - In small doses reduce and relax someone but could impair thinking - Alcohol- beer, wine, liquor o no medical use o Short Term effects: relaxation, cheerfulness, disinhibition, slurred speech, loss of coordination o Long Term- weight gain, liver disease, heart problems, cancer, Wernicke- Korsakoff syndrome Alcohol- Related Disorders: Alcohol Abuse/ Dependence - Binge Drinking (4-5+ in single occasion) or withdrawal - Risks: increased incidence in biological relatives (low SES, educational level, sex, ethnicity) - Comorbidity- conduct disorder, ASPD Depressants: Sedatives, Hypnotics and Anxiolytics - Barbiturates, benzodiazepines (xanax, valium) and analgesics - Medical use: anesthetic, anticonvulsant, anti- anxiety, sedative, seizures, for insomnia - High capacity for tolerance and dependence - WITHDRAWAL- looks like chronic alcohol abuse - SHORT term effects (avg dose): similar to alcohol - LONG term effects/ overdose: unsteady gate, slurred speech, insomnia, blurred vision, coma and death Depressants: Inhalants (solvents, medical anesthetic gases) - Greatest users of inhalants are young - Chronic use: o Respiratory irritations and rashes o Damage to the CNS o Organ failure or death STIMULANTS - Produce excitatory effect - Medical use- appetite suppressant, ADHD, narcolepsy - Short term avg dose effects: increased alertness, heart rate and blood pressure; more confidence, possible paranoia and aggression - Prolonged use: ulcers, damage to blood vessels, heart failures, psychosis - Overdose: blurred vision, impaired speech, convulsions irregular heartbeat, insomnia, delirium Cocaine - Classified as a stimulant euphoriant - Medical uses: local anesthetic, vasoconstrictor - SHORT (avg dose): euphoria, mental alertness, appetite decrease, increase heart rate, blood pressure, temperature and energy - LONG/ withdrawal: irritability, mood disturbance, auditory hallucinations, seizures, headaches - Overdose: tremors, vertigo, paranoia, possible cardiac arrest, seizures and respiratory arrest - Neuron continuously fires as the neurotransmitters remain in the synaptic gap b/c of cocaine Epidemiology - Prevalence 2% have been cocaine dependent - Risk for males - Comorbidity w/ MDD, Eating disorders, PTSD, AntiSocialPersonalityD, ADHD, alcohol, marijuana, opiate use disorders Amphetamines - Produces excitatory effect: cause release of dopamine and norepinephrine and blocks reuptake - Medical use: depression, fatigue or low boost energy, low self- confidence, dieting - Short/ long effects: similar to cocaine Nicotine - Found in tobacco products, stimulant euphoriant - Medical use is mixed - SHORT: vasoconstriction, stimulates respiration, appetite suppression - LONG: high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, cancer, emphysema - Withdrawal: irritability, loss of concentration, restlessness, anxiety, dysphoria Epidemiology - 20% prevalence in general population - Risks: genetic, male gender, SES, less in college pop - Comorbidity: schizophrenia, Mood/ Anxiety Disorders, Substance use disorders Caffeine - Stimulates CNS and increases dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin - Medical use: migraine, asthma, ADHD - SHORT: alertness, restlessness, nervousness - LONG: excitement, insomnia, rapid heartbeat, psychomotor agitation - Withdrawal: fatigue or drowsiness, increased appetite or weight gain, anxiety, depression OPIOIDS - Ex. Opium, morphine, heroine, codeine, methadone, dilaudid - Sedative, anesthetic and euphoria effects on CNS - Medical: cough suppressant, pain relief - SHORT: mild euphoria, relaxation - LARGE/ OVERDOSE: cause respiratory depression, stupor, coma, cardiac arrest - Withdrawal: restlessness, pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, fever, elevated blood pressure and heart rate, vulnerability to disease from needle sharing Epidemiology - .7% prevalence - Risks: low SES, ethnic minority, age, male gender - Comorbid w/ Dysthymic disorder, MDD, Childhood Conduct Disorder, ASPD HALLUCINOGENS and PCP - Hallucinogens: occur naturally as peyote, mescaline, psilocybin, synthetically as LSD, MDMA - PCP: similar effects to hallucinogens - Medical use is mixed - SHORT: altered consciousness and perceptions, synesthesia - LONG/ overdose: persistent psychosis, flashbacks, delusional thinking, mood disorders, panic attacks Epidemiology - .6% prevalence, not very dependent on drug - Risks in males - Comorbid w/ conduct disorder and ASPD CANNABIS - Includes marijuana, hashish, THS - Usually classified as a hallucinogenic agent - Medical: nausea, appetite, pain, glaucoma - SHORT: relaxation, confusion, increased heart rate, impaired motor skills - LONG: cannabis amotivational syndrome, memory problems, respiratory problems, psychological dependency Epidemiology - 5% prevale
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