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PSYC 444
Kent Norman

Historical Perspectives 1/29/14 Cyberpsychology- study of things that pertain both to the HISTORY OF HCI AND CYBERPSYCHOLOGY behavior of humans and to the activities of computers. Generation 0- no human/ computer interface - no users other than computer scientists who built History of Psychology and programmed machines 1. Wilhem Wundt- world’s first psychologist - human factor issues- too many toggles/ 1. wrote first textbook on field of psychology connections and consciousness experience - to reduce time/ errors involved in program HCI 2. William James- study how mind determines what invented people do and help people adapt Generation 1- computer programming languages and 1. adaptation important for survival operating systems used to shape HCI 2. John Watson- behaviorism - programming= communicating to computer and display was feedback 3. Ivan Pavlov- classical conditioning 4. Max Wertheimer- the whole is different from the - alphanumeric and language based sum of its parts→ consciousness can’t be understood - software psychology (Ben Schneiderman) by analyzing components but as a coherent whole Generation 2- 1973 breakthrough where Xerox created paperless office, the Alto computer w/ first graphical user 5. Sigmund Freud- study unconscious processes interface or GUI and first internal network (Ethernet) o forces of motivation are unconscious and hidden - Wimp- windows, icons, menus, pointing device - Steve Jobs of Apple used GUI to create LISA History of Computers First Generation- first machines based on wired GUI- Graphical User Interface circuits, electromagnetic relays and vacuum tubes - What you see is what you get- appearance on - large and unreliable and used a lot of screen is how would look when printed electricity - Introduce multimedia w/ sound, animation, video Second Generation- invention of transistor in 1947 - Interfaces today still Generation 2 which replaced relays and vacuum tubes of 1 G. st User friendly- describe easy to use interfaces - printed circuit boards reduced computer size User- centered design- encourage programmers to think in 1950-60s about how user approached tasks instead of how computer Third Generation- invention of integrated circuit in processed data 1958 - computer “chip” incorporated many transistor CYBERPSYCH VISIONARIES gates on 1 microchip Vannevar Bush- wrote device called “memex” embodied - era of large mainframe computers of 60s ideas similar to hypertext and World Wide Web, inspire other to bring ideas to a reality Fourth Generation- breakthrough for modern Douglas Engelbart- wrote On- Line System (NLS), first computing in 1971 when Intel released first implementation of hypertext commercial microprocessor which put all of - Computer Supported Co- operative Work and computer’s processing into 1 Large Scale Integration groupware (LSI) chip or 1 Very LSI microchip Ted Nelson- worked on software framework called Xanadu and embodies World Wide Web concepts JCR Licklider- ideas of human computer symbiosis and computer as communication device - Influential person in computer science - Led development of internet and invention of mouse, windows, hypertext Biological Basis for HCI 2/3/14 Humans: Central Nervous System- brain and spinal cord Neurons Peripheral Nervous System- consists of nerves Action Potential outside CNS that travel to/ from organs to tissues in Resting State body Synapse Neurotransmitters Hindbrain- above spinal column 1. Medulla- control centers for breathing, Human system → Plasticity (self- organizing over time, neurons orient themselves and build synaptic heart rate, swallow, digestion connections) 2. Pons- sleep and arousal • neural states are resting/ active, inhibitory/ 3. Cerebellum- regulates and controls coordination excitatory • damage to brain impairs behavior but doen’t Midbrain- above hindbrain w/ destroy human - Reticular formation- network involved in • human thoughts are serial (only think about 1 maintenance of consciousness and sleep, and startle response thing at a time) but unconscious processes controlled by different brain centers Forebrain • autonomic systems- self- preserving fx to maintain 1. Thalamus- sensory relay stations sort/ send homeostatic state signals to cerebral cortex for processing 2. Hypothalamus- regulation of internal bodily Peripheral Nervous System: Somatic & Autonomic conditions (body temp, food intake, sex) to Systems maintain homeostasis PNS- composed of nerves 3. Limbic System- composed of amygdala and 1. Somatic NS- handles voluntary motor movement sending commands through motor neurons and hippocampus control response to fear/ aggression receive signals from sensory neurons 4. Hippocampus- acquisition and consolidation 2. Autonomic NS- sends involuntary commands to nonskeletal muscles (in heart, lungs, stomach, of new memory traces etc) and Controls homeostatic processes to 5. Cerebral Cortex- largest brain center, 80% of maintain normal bodily functions total brain mass Lobes  Parasympathetic System- maintains normal homeostatic levels at rest 1. Parietal Lobe- process sensation of touch  Sympathetic NS- rapidly and involuntarily and body position, voluntary control of activates our fight or flight ability to take muscles action 2. Occipital Lobe- visual center process shape,  Revs up power system for action color, motion and turns off to unnecessary 3. Temporal Lobe- areas for auditory processing functions and language Endocrine System 4. Frontal lobe- motor coordination and in higher - Network of glands that manufacture and release mental processes of planning, social skills, chemical messengers called hormones abstract thinking - Hormones carried throughout bloodstream and act on cell’s membrane Technological Basis for HCI 1/31/14 Computers: Hardware Architecture Computers: Logic and Programming 1. Motherboard- larger printed circuit board 1. Circuit-
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