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PHSC 401 (20)
Boyle (20)
Lecture 18

PHSC 401 Lecture 18: Smoking

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University of Maryland
Public Health Science
PHSC 401

PHSC 401: Cancer 41217 4 themes: 1. epidemiological transition: chronic diseases replace epidemic disease as leading cause of mortality 2. modern ideas of healthrisk: acute dangers replaced by chronic risk 3. rise of organized medicine: people trust health to individual physician 5. health in a consumer society Lung Cancer deaths Frederick L. Hoffmans Surveys of Smoking and Cancer (19241934): Evaluating risks for insurance industry Finds lung cancer has increased from .71000 to .91000 in 10 years o Men with lung cancer tend to be smokers o Trouble defining heavy vs moderate smoker Not conclusive Did not rule out possibility that cancer was due to increase in pollution by factories Didnt rule out that less healthy people or those already with cancer were more likely to smoke Did not rule out unkown genetic factoraddiction or cancer Did not rule out improved diagnosis alone was responsible for increase in cancer Nazi War against smokingcancer Franz Herman Muller 1939 o Compares smoking habits of 96 men who died of lung cancer vs controls who died of other illnesses o All but 3 victims were smokers, higher rate o Strongly suggests association Changes in production Five cured: flue cured tobaccoeasily inhaled Hand rolled: machine rolled cigarettescheaply mass produced. Invented by James Bonsack in 1880 Selling and Marketing Tobacco Appeals to sports Appeals to female beauty o Seen as a sign of womens new freedom Promotes smoking as new product WWI Who would be heartless enough to prohibit smoking Anti tobacco crusade recedes among real dangers of war Smoking seen as promoting comradery, social activity o Relieved anxieties or boredom of war o An allowed pleasure for soldiers fighting and dying Eugenics
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