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MUSC 220 (14)

Middle Eastern Music.pdf

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School of Music
MUSC 220
Kendra Salois

Middle East & North Africa Wednesday, November 27, 2013 1:02 PM Tahkt ensemble - art music ensemble from the 18th to early 20th century - Builds on art/court music tradition from al-Andalus - Non religious music - Urban - centered in Syria (Aleppo) and Egypt (Cairo) - Consumed by elites - In the 18th and 19th c., transmittedorally/aurally Typically, 6 performers: - 'oud - pear shaped lute - Kamanja - violin - Qanun - trapezoidal zither - Nay - reed flute - Riqq - frame drum with cymbals - Vocalist 19th century practice - Heterophonic texture, single melody played idiomatically - Early 10th century: each performance= 10-12 songs - Muwashshah- composedtext and melody, originated in al-Andalus - All in the same maqam (melodic mode) - In different iqa'at (rhythmic modes; sing. iqa') Late 19th century: the wasala suite - Each performance of a wasala is in a single maqam - Taqasim- improvisationon the maqam - Instrumental compositions - Several muwashshah - taqasim in between or on different instruments - Vocal improvisation:layali and mawwal - Finally, instrumental conclusion Wasala suite: improvisatorygenres - Taqasim - instrumental ○ Free rhythm, no accompaniment ○ Somewhatfixed way of presenting maqam - Layali and mawwal= vocal ○ Layali: no fixed text or melody ○ Mawwal: fixed text, free melody and repetitions ○ Instrumentalists follow and repeat 20th century practice - 1930's:tahkt ensemble expands into firqa - Partial imitationof Western orchestra - Large section of violins - Multiple cellos - Double bass - More opportunities for composersto experiment Ughniya - literally means "song" - 1930s:new form of long multi section song - With firqa or even larger orchestral accompaniment - With firqa or even larger orchestral accompaniment - Often new poems set to new music - Collaboration between poems,composers,singers - Place to experiment with form,
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