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Indonesian, Javanese, Balinese music - MUSC 220.pdf

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University of Maryland
School of Music
MUSC 220
Kendra Salois

Indonesian Wednesday, October 30, 2013 1:04 PM Globalization - my definition: transferring of cultures from one region to multiple regions of the world - As a term, popular in academia and media since 1980s - As a concept, represents later wave of interconnection - As a way of thinking about musical circulation, movementof people, sounds, styles in all directions Indonesian rock and pop: - Sutton: "responses to globalization" ○ Electric bass and guitar, trap set, pop song form - Western styles of music in new locations ○ Ahmad Band, "Distorsi" - Combinationsof western and local ○ Krakatau, "Shuffledang-Shuffledang" - Regional, western, and local influences together ○ Rhoma Irama, "Begadang II" Begadang II (1978) - Dangdut: Indonesia's most popular "pop" music of 1970s-90s - Named after characteristicdrumming pattern - Both "modern"and "Indonesian" - Combines different elementsall heard locally: ○ Electric keys, guitar, bass; verse-refrain song form ○ Busy drumming on kendhang ○ Bollywood-influencedsinging style - Form: Intro, Verse 1, refrain, verse 2, guitar solo Gamelan in the west: Paris universal exposition,1889 - World expositionsof fairs trendy, late 19th-early 20th century - Brought the latest scientific developmentto wide audiences ○ Hard sciences, medicine, manufacturing, farming, industrial applications, natural history and anthropology - Pavilions representing Europe's colonies ○ Non-European music made by its creators(central Javanese gamelan and dance) - Debussy known to have visited Javanese exhibition ○ Inspired by distinctive modes and instrumental timbres Ethnomusicology: - Early disciplinary focus on non-Western "classical" or "high" traditions Many gamelans are in universities, many times part of ethnomusicologycurriculums. Javanese Gamelan Wednesday, October 23, 2013 1:05 PM Tradition found all over Java (in Indonesia, largest Muslim country) Seen as music of the court and of royalty - Major courts in Yogyakarta(Yogya), Surakarta (solo) - Signaled palaces wealth, power, taste - Courts still maintain music and dance traditions Since late 20th c., prestigious fine arts schools too Gamelan: - Like a western orchestra, families of instruments in varied sizes ○ Hand drums, gongs, struck keys (wood - xylophone type or metal slab), rebab (spike fiddle) and suling (end-blown flute), singers - Pieces of music are called gendhing Gongan - one full unit of cycle - Total number of pulses in a cycle varies by piece (gendhing) - Ends with the sound of the gong - Unit of time Balungan - melody Ex. Bubaran "Kembang Pacar" (CD 2, track 22) - Four balungan melodyphrases played alone ○ Whole balungan = 4 gongan - Then, instruments that mark the gongan cycle enter - Next, drums - Next, elaborating instruments Irama - the ratio of elaboration to the balungan - Elaborating instruments fill in x notes per balungan note - Every irama level has same number of pulses in gongan - Moving from one level to another --> "modulation" from one ratio to another
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