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MUSC 220 (14)

South Indian Music.pdf

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University of Maryland
School of Music
MUSC 220
Kendra Salois

South India Monday, November 18, 2013 1:02 PM Carnatic music - classical tradition of South India - Sophisticated rhythmic and melodic symbol - Large, multi-century repertoryof devotional song - Conventionsfor concerts, performance,learning - Improvisationwithin conventions vital to tradition - High value placed on instrumental and vocal virtuosity - All this info transmittedmostly orally/aurally Tambura - plays a drone on a fifth - Foundation of vocal and instrumental performances - Also can use a sruti-box or synthesizer Mridangam - drum partners with lead - Most often heard of four typical percussion instruments Tala - North and South Indian classical musics - Cycle of pulses with inner divisions (angas,"limbs") - Carnatic music: four most-commontalas ○ Adi tala = 8 = 4+2+2 ○ Rupaka tala = 3 = 1+2 ○ Khanda Chapu tala = 5 = 2+3 ○ Misra Chapu tala = 7=3+2+2 - Talas and rhythmic patterns are transmitted with solkattu ○ Easy T and K sounds to go quickly through rhythms ○ Moras: 3 times repeated ending formula Raga - North and South Indian classical musics - Melakarta system classifies possible ragas ○ Since around 1620 ○ Invented by musical theorist Venkatamakhi - Earlier, and still, ragas classified by associations ○ Time of day, season, performancecontext - Today, 50-100ragas most commonlyused - Each raga is much morethan a mode or scale ○ Five to seven svaras (notes) with solfege syllables ○ Ascending and descending intervals ○ Conventionalornamentationsand melodic gestures ○ Conventionalways to approach each note ○ Associations with mood,emotion,time of day, season, setting Kiravani raga - - Intervals similar to the harmonic minor scale - Same ascending and descending - Traditional ornamentationfor specific svaras ○ Usually ga, da, and ni are ornamented - Traditional phrases to use in improvisations Typical concert form: - Varnam - Varnam ○ An instrumental scale ○ Establishes a raga and improviseswithin it - Seven to ten kritis - Main item of the concert ○ Often another kriti ○ Longest, most compleximprovisation - "Light" devotionalsong, maybe dance Kriti - - Composeddevotional song ○ Addressed to a Hindu god/goddess/manifestation - Regionally specific repertoire of kritis - Flexible format with room for improvisations ○ By lead vocalist/instrumentalist,mridangam, and/or supporting melodic instruments Typical kriti form: 1) Alapana (improvisedsection) ○ Introduces characteristicsof raga ○ In free rhythm - no tala 2) Tanam (improvised) ○ Concentrateson irregular rhythmic patterns • Both start at lowest part of raga and moveto highest 3) Precomposedsong in the same raga ○ Composedtext, melody,and rhythm ○ Mridangan enters, now in tala ○ Precomposedsong has three sections: pallavi, anupallavi, charnam, new text and melody in each 4) More improvisations ○ Kalpana svaras: increasingly long melodic improvisations ○ Tani avartanam: drum improv, ending with mora 5) Can end with reprise of precomposedtext, or after tani avartanam Film songs Wednesday, November 20, 2013 1:03 PM - From "Bollywood"musicals ○ Film industry centers: Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai - Fills the role of pop music in South India ○ In films, advertisements,radio - Vital part of films since 1940s - Draws on Carnatic, folk, Western pop influences History: 1900-1910:western silent films screened in Madras 1912:first South Indian silent film Early 1930s:first "talkies" made in North Indian studios - Stories from Hindu legend, set in undefined past - Gramophoneand cinema companies join forces ○ 78s of film songs: a pop music industry is born Mid 1930s:first studios open in Chennai - The "social": in contemporarysetting with socioeconomiccommentary Professionalstudio musicians from Carnatic tradition - Music and dance based on South Indian theatre - Simplified and shortened the classical tradition ○ Less elaborationof raga, more repetition ○ Included instruments from Hindustani art music too 1940:the first dubbed vocalistin a South Indian film 1950s:"playback" singers replace actor-singers Trend towards using regional folk traditions' music - Attracts broad audiences - Enables different stories about different people - Alienates someCarnatic musicians 1950s-70s:increasingly large Western-styleorchestras - Songs and score moreintegrated with plot and characters' emotions - Less reliance on song texts to communicate(importantin a nation with 22 recognized languages) 1960s-70s:"light music" - Mix of Carnatic forms and instruments, traditional Weste
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