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MUSC 220 (14)

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University of Maryland
School of Music
MUSC 220
Kendra Salois

Music Listening Friday, September 6, 2013 2:34 PM Ex. 1 There is a drum beating, and a whistle. The pattern is repetitive.Nonstandard percussion is heard. There are harmonies. The music was polyphonic. Ex. 2 There is a voice, an audience is heard. The voice is speaking, then the audience cheers afterwards. It is a style of preaching. There is almosta call and response type thing going on. Is this music? It is debatable. His intent is not to perform, it is to preach. However,there are many musical characters of it. The definition of music can shift. Ex. 3 There is a high pitched whistle. It sounds like birds chirping. Ex. 4 There is one voice. He is chanting. In the background there are environmentalnoises. It sounds like prayer. He varies his voiceto a tune. It sounds very soulful. There are long pauses between the phrases. Ex. 5 There is a background drum beat. There is a melody,which is the singer. The music is polyphonic. There are many harmonies. There are many definitions for music, but TA's one is "Human patterned sound". Heterophony - one melody,but people hit it in different ways Polyphony - multiple melodies Native American Sounds & Culture Monday, September 9, 2013 1:04 PM Expectations:what we assume we know about a group Anomalies: anything that doesn't fit our expectations Unexpected: leads you to question the expectations One of the things most primarily associatedwith Native American music is drum beats and certain rhythms. Native Americans - blanket term for many indigenous peoples and nations, at least 150 tribes/communities/nations,175 languages still spoken 4.3 million people in the US claim Native American heritage They are united by history of US-Native relations since the 18th century Navajo historical context:ancestors settled in southwest 600-700years ago, traditionally moved each season, following livestock,reservationlands in Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico. Navajo refer to themselvesas Diné. Their language is still widely spoken, traditional religion, Native American church, and Christianity all practiced. Traditional music style: wide range of songs, variety of rattles and drums Traditional Navajo religion has several rituals, each ritual has its own repertoire of songs. Some are public (may be used outside the ritual context),some are private (only heard in the ritual). Each ritual is conducted by a specialist singer Untitled Yeibichai song Accompanied by rattles throughout Vocal styles: - Multiple timbres and falsetto singing - Vocables including the call of the Yei - Melodies often start high and descend - Big leaps in pitch Steady pulse, but no meter Shizhane (I'm in Luck) Circle dance song from the enemy ceremony - A BCAB structure symmetrical - Had both vocables and lyrics - Big leaps in pitch - Melodies often start high and descend - Steady pulse but no meter Symmetricalform - 3 beats in meter - The song seems warmer, not just vocables--has some lyrics as well 9/16/2013 Plains style - has drumming sounds Pow Wow - religious festival History: Peddlers would try to sell 'Native American medicine', and got Native Americans to dress up and dance in shows to attract attentions. This is an early example of commercializationfor Native American culture. In their home reservations,Native Americans began to lose the right to do songs and dances in religious ceremonies,starting in the 1880's. On the other hand, commercialsong and dance ceremoniesbegan to grow more popular and in a way codified the dances and songs. The restrictionswere there because the US governmentwanted Native Americans to assimilate to Euro-Americanculture. Northern Plains Song - Steady percussion throughout whole sound, but drum beat pattern changes in the middle of the B section (honor beats). The pulse stays the same, but the drum beat pattern changes. - There is call and response - Shrill, high pitched timbre - Very energetic - Very repetitive - Vocables Southern Plains Song - Timbre is deeper than northern style - Similar percussion style - Similar momentwhere the drum pattern changes • Straight Intertribal Song • Road Warrior Spirits for Sale Friday, September 13, 2013 2:26 PM Pow-wow Music Friday, September 20, 2013 2:03 PM Split into two categories:Northern and Southern plains The function of the pow-wow is to unite the community,both within and between tribes Northern Plain Style: - Any number of people can participate - Both men and women - High and energetic timbre - Has honor beats, and characterized by a push-up ○ Lead, A, honor beats, B Southern Plain Style - Has deeper timbre - Lead, A, B (honor beats happen inside it) African Music Wednesday, September 25, 2013 1:02 PM Wilson: Shared approaches in African Music • Likely to be on midterm: In Afro-diasporic musics as a whole: - Tend to have a call/response or question/answerstyle - Percussiveapproach - Rhythmic or metrical contrast - High density - Body motionand/or dance Sixth shared approach: the heterogeneoussound ideal - "a combination of diverse timbres" is "desirable" - Preferencefor contrast rather than blend Ex. Recording of hindewhu style (Ba-Benzele of Central Africa) - Two distinct timbres (human voice and flute) Trans-Atlantic Slave trade - Slaves who survived passage went to US south, Caribbean, South America - Few shared a language - Often music making and drumming not permmitted - Today, Afro-diasporic music-cultures in each place Blues: There are blues players in America and Mali. It originates from African music. Atsiagbekor Wednesday, September 18, 2013 1:01 PM Atsiagbekor - a dance-drumming genre - a performanceuniting dance, drumming, and song Ewe people are from Ghana and Togo (West Africa) It originates from a dance used around war. It was used before and after battles. In contemporary context, it is used at funerals. The music and dance is used to honor deceased and ancestors. - Both occasions,this genre was used to reflect on death Performancecontext: - Men and womenboth dance, not usually simultaneously. - The drumming is by trained musicians, usually men - The song is by men and women, in solo and chorus Performancestructure: (usually in 5 sections) - Vulolo - opening procession,"slow agbekor" - Adzo - short songs in free rhythm - Vutsotsoe- fast drumming or fast agbekor - Adzokpi - displays of dancing in pairs or small groups - Formerly,hatsiatsia - solo and group songs - Vulolo - closing procession Songs feature frequent call and response - Including songs in free rhythm (in adzo) Same songs used in different sections Texts: themes of courage, sacrifice, battlefield prowess - Full of allusions and proverbs - Just one genre of song texts in Ewe musical life Atsiawo (plural of atsia): standardized dance and drumming patterns - Typical of multiple Ewe dance-drumming genres - Lead drummer cues dancers with patterns - In atsiagbekor, usually in the vutsotsoesection It is polyrhythmic - Each instrument has its own role - Each sounds in relationship to the bell to form a whole - "a polyphonic texture that seems to change depending on one's point of musical reference" Shona Monday, September 23, 2013 1:03 PM - ContemporaryZimbabwe has two major African ethnic groups, Ndebele (who immigrated north in the 19th c.) and Shona - Shona traditional spirituality and culture are considered "national" heritage of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe was once under British control, named Rhodesia. It had a diamond mining industry. In 1930, the Land ApportionmentAct made it so cities and fertile agricultural land was occupied by whites only, and Africans were compressedinto rural areas. In 1979,there was national independence negotiated by England, after a war. In the early 1990s,there was a structural adjustment program. Traditional Shona spirituality reveres ancestors - Mbira music reflects and reinforces this: ○ Played at mapira, rituals of ancestor spirit possession ○ Songs considered to evoke spirits or family ancestors Mbira - the instrument - ~22 metal keys (can be plucked with fingers) - Wooden platform - Metal pieces for buzzing sound - Resonatorhole (also deze, gourd resonator) One mbira ensemble: - Mbira dzavadzimu ("mbira of the ancestors") ○ One plays kushaura part, one plays kutsinhira part ○ Both may be inside deze-s (gourd resonators) - Hosho (gourd rattles) - Three types of singing, including kudeketera (sung poetry) Mbira music: - Single parts played in 3 groups of four notes each ○ One 12-note phrase ○ Entire melody = four 1-note phrases - Kutsinhira part sounds between kushaura notes - Interlocking parts create new melodies out of the composite Nhemamusasa - Kushaura part heard first (Locke:6 full melodic cycles) - ~:46 kutsinhira part enters, interlocks with kushaura part - 1:46 hosho enters, rhythmic pattern emphasizes duple Performancecontexts: - Mapira - rituals of ancesotr spirit possession - Non ritual celebrations - Chimurenga - mbira-influenced popular song - "world music" - New Afro-diasporic recordings Chimuranga - shona-language word means "struggle" - 1970s:chimuranga songs politicize Zimbabweans - Zimbabwe used to be called Rhodesia, this movementhad to do with the independence - 1980s:pop sound popularized by ThomasMapfumo and his band, Blacks Unlimited Influential on Southern African and North American popular musicians ○ Influential on Southern African and North American popular musicians Thomas Mapfumo and Blacks Unlimited - "Nyarai" - Transferred to rock-band instrumentation - Interaction between guitar, bass, and drums The Blues Monday, September 30, 2013 1:03 PM Influences on the blues: - African American religious music ○ Ring shouts ○ Spirituals African American secular song - ○ Work songs - Southern String players - Anglo American ballads - Euro American harmonic practice Work Song example- "Rosie" - Song leader and responders, improvisedharmonies in response - Axes on wood keep time - Melody is syncopated, begins on an unstressed or "off" beat Blues Melodic Conventions: - Typical melodic contour - Use of both "major" and "minor" 3,7, or 5 ○ 3 can land in between major and minor, or use both ○ These are known as "blue" notes - Titon calls this the "blues scale" - Often pentatonic melodies, 5 pitches instead of 7 (a typical major or minor scale) 12 bar form - emerged over time, became the most prominent form, more commonthan 16-bar and other options. It follows a I, IV, V, I structure (these refer to the chords used in the form) Major blues styles: rural or downhome blues (1890s-1910s),city or classic blues (1910s-1940s),electric blues (1940s-1960s) - All of these styles can still be heard today Rural blues (delta blues) - usually solo male accompanying himself on guitar, banjo - More variation than in other blues styles - Commercialactivityfrom the start - Ex: Robert Johnson, "Sweet Home Chicago" ○ Deviatesfrom traditional 12 bar Classic blues - mostly professional female vocalists,some wrote their own lyrics and melodies,and they were accompanied by small ensembles - Also known as "city blues" - Developedin cities like New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago - Fueled by "Great Migration" northwards in 20th c. (wave of people moving out to north and west) - Earliest recorded performanceswere in this style - Prominentlyrical themes: ○ Romantic conflict, travel, loss, economichardship, having the "blues" ○ Here told from a woman's perspective ○ Also known for double entendre - Ex: Bessie Smith, "Empty Bed Blues" ○ Singing about sex Call and response between her and the trombone ○ ○ Call and response between her and the trombone Electric blues - associatedwith male guitarists and vocalists - Introduction of electric guitar to the genre - Influence on, and contemporarywith, early rock 'n' roll - Ex: Lazy Blue Lucas and His Blue Rhythm, "She Got Me Walkin" ○ Piano, electric guitar, drums ○ Verse 1: AAB lyrical form ○ Verses 2-3: "quatrain" form (note refrain is the same in 2 and 3) A I IV I I A IV IV I I B V V V/I I Abstract Thursday, September 19, 2013 8:38 PM A final paper of no more than 12 double-spaced pages is due in section Friday, December 6. The final paper should make a focused and effective argument in relation to a musical culture around a genre of music in the United States using both bibliographic research and examples from a musical performance or performancesyou witnessed. You will also include an abstract and an annotated bibliography, not included in the page count, with your final paper. An abstract should briefly: • (Re)-establish the topic of the research project. • Give the research problem and/or main objectiveof the project (this usually comes first). • Indicate the methodologyused. • Present the main findings. • Present the main conclusions Performance Diagram Sunday, September 29, 2013:35 PM South and Central America Monday, October 7, 2013 1:15 PM The "Andean Sound" abroad: - Sanjuanes of Ecuador and Peru - Waynos of Peru - Zampona ensembles of Bolivia and Peru - Nueva cancion ensembles Each genre already shared across political boundaries, each travels to other regions, nations, continents Paths of circulation: Nueva cancion: from Argentina to the rest of the continent, Europe, and North America k'antu: represents highland panpipe traditions in Brazil, Peru Wayno: Peruvian love songs, played by Californian duo Sanjuan: Ecuadorian and non-Ecuadorian players abroad Bolivian Kantu Wednesday, October 2, 2013 1:05 PM - Widespread tradition of pipes and flutes throughout the South American continent - From Andes - The pipes are closed at the bottom,and you blow across them - Melody cannot be played by one person, the melodies is split up between many people - Multiple panpipes, each with two horizontal layers: ira and acra - Parallel melodiesthroughout - Primarily pentatonic Ivorystorm161 Hocketing - spreading a melody between multiple instruments - Often from one note to the next, compositemelody played by all Nueva Cancion Friday, October 4, 2013 2:14 PM Nueva cancion - newly composedsongs of socio-political critique Victor Jara, "El aparecido" - Chilean cueca: six-pulse meter - Alternativelyfeels like 3/4 and 6/8, also known as sesquialtera - Instrumentation:kena, guitar, charango, percussion, vocals - Dedicated to Ernesto "Che" Guevara Nueva cancion - from argentina to berkeley Sanjuan Monday, October 7, 2013 1:13 PM - Song form of Ecuadorian Andes - Played by both indigenous Quichua and Afro-Ecuadorians ○ Both groups influenced by colonial plantation owners in the 16th century ○ Sanjuan form similar in both groups: variation in rhythmic patterns, instruments ○ Was originally dance music, and part of the festival of St. John (Sanjuan = St. John) Ex. "Muyu muyari warmigu' - "Please Return, Dear Woman" - Example of sanjuan among Quichua in Imbabura province - Instrumentation:harp - descended from colonial Spanish models, golpe - percussion on the harp sounding board - Lyrical form - 8-beat lines arranged in pairs or couplets, couplets repeat - Musical form: alternating A and B phrases, lyrics sung with A; B on the harp, rhythmic patterns the same throughout - A phrase is isorhythmic- the first half of it has the same rhythm as the second half - Bimodality - both major and minor used in the same piece (goes between major and minor continuously) Ex. "Me gusta la leche" - "I like milk" - Example of sanjuan among Afro-Ecuadorians in Esmeraldas province - Instrumentation:requinto: lead guitar, higher range than trad. guitar, bomba: double-headed local drum, guiro: in this case, metal scraper - Lyrical form: same phrase length and couplet structure - Musical form: melodicand formal variations ○ Melodic phrases: A, B, and C ○ Form: two sets of couplets, then interlude. This pattern repeated 3 times, length of interlude varies - Suggesting isorhythm,but not quite (small differences) - Alternating between major and minor Lando Wednesday, October 9, 2013 1:19 PM Afro-Peruvians:descendants of formal slaves brought via Panama or Chile - Afro-Peruvian revival:late 1950's to late 1970's Lando- a "reconstructed"genre, by artists and academics - Happened in Peru Ex. "Azucar de Cana" - Traditional Peruvian instruments including quijada (jawbone) - Major to relative minor - Call and response patterns - Many distinct timbres - Lyrical characteristics: songs of sugar cane: Peru, Ecuador, Colombia,double entendre Nicomendes Santa Cruz - Peruvian folklorist, poet, musician, and leader of Afro-Peruvian revival - Proposedinfluential theory of lando: ○ Derived from couple dance originally from Angola ○ Presence of similar dances in Brazil and Cuba - Recalled melodiesand rhythms from grandparents Tinku Wednesday, October 9, 2013 1:46 PM Folkloric pipe genre from Bolivia - Attempting to represent "the folk" Folklorized - Taking something, reconstructing it, often commercialized,"polishing it", packaging it in a way that it wasn't originally performed in - Ex: mariachi band playing to tourists Ireland Wednesday, October 16, 2013 1:02 PM Dance anthropology:dance and choreography as frameworksto understand culture and vice versa Dance Tune Tradition: - Indigenous melodies and airs exchanged with Scotland and England - Oral tradition (many print collectionsexist) - Repertoirebrought to North America by emigrants, many tunes mixed into the American folk tradition Instruments: - Traditional: fiddles, harps, whistles, flutes, bagpipes - Recently incorporated:guitar, banjo, mandolin, bouzouki, accordion, piano, synthesizers Bodhran (drum ,not in dance because the dancers provide the percussion) Uilleann pipes (small bagpipes) Started in house parties: solo or in unison. This wasn't allowed. 1920's:Ceili bands and Irish dance orchestra developed. Revivedin the 1980s and remain popular and active today. - Style of playing gives emphasis to both solo musicians and the group Pub sessions: modern, very participatory Texture: monophonicto heterophonic,depending on the context - Competitionstyle of dance mostlymonophonicor homophonic Majorityof tunes are in binary form (AABB) Repetition and symmetry:often reflected in the dance steps. Basic tune types: jigs (single, double, slip, slides), reels, hornpipes Codification of dance (and music) because of music schools, rules, and competitions Many regional variants have faded. Promotionof Irish dance worldwide through diaspora. Standard solo dances: - Soft shoe: reels and jigs ○ Slip jigs (women) - Hard shoe: hornpipes, treble reels, and treble jigs - Sets: hardshoe solos danced to specific tunes with specific names Figure/Ceili dances: group dances Predominantfeatures of style: - Upright torso,straight/unmoving arms, feet always turned out and crossing over the center line of the body, on tip-toes - In recent years has becomemore athletic: high jumps, lots of "lift" Used to be predominantly men, but now predominatelywomen Costumes - one-upmanship in costumes,have wigs now, fancy dresses - Transmitted orally and visually, use of oral mnemonicsor lilting - Each teacher has unique way of lilting, depends on the needs of the student Irish dance has influenced American dance styles such as jazz and tap. Scotland Pibroch Friday, October 18, 2013 2:11 PM Bagpipe genre, literally meaning "Piping" - Gaelic speaing Scottish highlands and hebrides - Originally used for clan functions, welcomes,salutes, gatherings, laments, farewells, marches, battle tunes, and warnings History: - 1600's - 1700's Piping "Colleges" - Traditional Gaelic culture threatened - Modern Pibroch is found primarily in piping competition ○ Leading to a minimal variety of interpretation - Theme and variations based on slow air (song) ○ Ground ('urlar') ○ Several variations with increasing ornamentation ○ Ground ('urlar') repated - Length 5-35 minutes - Technically demanding - Taught orally using "canntaireachd" from a piping master Does not follow a strict meter - Each line has a four pulse "scansion": long - medium - medium - long Bagpipes - one or more chanters, one or moredrones, an air bladder Indonesian Wednesday, October 30, 2013 1:04 PM Globalization - my definition: transferring of cultures from one region to multiple regions of the world - As a term, popular in academia and media since 1980s - As a concept, represents later wave of interconnection - As a way of thinking about musical circulation, movementof people, sounds, styles in all directions Indonesian rock and pop: - Sutton: "responses to globalization" ○ Electric bass and guitar, trap set, pop song form - Western styles of music in new locations ○ Ahmad Band, "Distorsi" - Combinationsof western and local ○ Krakatau, "Shuffledang-Shuffledang" - Regional, western, and local influences together ○ Rhoma Irama, "Begadang II" Begadang II (1978) - Dangdut: Indonesia's most popular "pop" music of 1970s-90s - Named after characteristicdrumming pattern - Both "modern"and "Indonesian" - Combines different elementsall heard locally: ○ Electric keys, guitar, bass; verse-refrain song form ○ Busy drumming on kendhang ○ Bollywood-influencedsinging style - Form: Intro, Verse 1, refrain, verse 2, guitar solo Gamelan in the west: Paris universal exposition,1889 - World expositionsof fairs trendy, late 19th-early 20th century - Brought the latest scientific developmentto wide audiences ○ Hard sciences, medicine, manufacturing, farming, industrial applications, natural history and anthropology - Pavilions representing Europe's colonies ○ Non-European music made by its creators(central Javanese gamelan and dance) - Debussy known to have visited Javanese exhibition ○ Inspired by distinctive modes and instrumental timbres Ethnomusicology: - Early disciplinary focus on non-Western "classical" or "high" traditions Many gamelans are in universities, many times part of ethnomusicologycurriculums. Javanese Gamelan Wednesday, October 23, 2013 1:05 PM Tradition found all over Java (in Indonesia, largest Muslim country) Seen as music of the court and of royalty - Major courts in Yogyakarta(Yogya), Surakarta (solo) - Signaled palaces wealth, power, taste - Courts still maintain music and dance traditions Since late 20th c., prestigious fine arts schools too
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