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Lecture 1

BIL 150 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Alpha And Beta Carbon, Alpha Cell, Chemical Bond

Course Code
BIL 150
Mallery Charles

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Key Information for Biology Exam I
Population Growth
Unlimited population growth is also called exponential growth and
assumes that there are unlimited resources which creates a J curve
When there is limited growth due to carrying capacity (population the
resources can support) it makes an S curve
There is no population growth when the birth rate=death rate
Rate of growth is proportional to the current size of the population
It takes about 13 years to add the next 1 billion people to this planet,
and by 2050 there will be about 9 billion
Due to immigration in the U.S. there are two different curves, overall
immigrants were found to be more educated than Americans
Industrialized population increase much more slowly than
RLF is about 2.1-2.5 children because of infant mortality. In U.S. we
are below the RLF, whereas Africa is above
Only way to reduce fertility is by empowering women by educating
them about birth control
Population Pyramids
In a developing country it is more like a pyramid with more young
people and rapid growth
In developed countries it is more stable throughout like a box, less
Scientific Societies
National Academy of Science
oCreated by Abe Lincoln and has 2,200 members in the U.S.
Royal Society of London
oHas 1350 members and is British
Scientific Method
Biology is the study of life
Chemistry and Physics are thought to be more “black and white”
whereas Biology is gray because it is not always clear, there’s always
an exception to the rule
In the scientific theory there are two components called Pattern and
oA pattern is something observed in the natural world
oAnd then a process/mechanism is responsible for that pattern
The Scientific method is what scientists do for a living
oObjectivity refers to observing things as they are, whereas
acceptability is whether or not things can be reproduced
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oInductive reasoning: involves taking a specific observation and
making it more general into an hypothesis or theory (Bacon)
oDeductive reasoning: takes less general information and makes
it more specific for experimental results (Descartes)
oThen you can explore the validity of the hypothesis, patterns,
Thales: was the founder of the scientific method (living vs nonliving)
Observations>Hypothesis (proposed explanation for a phenomena
that is testable, can be falsified but can’t be proven correct)>
Experimental Prediction (designed to falsify)> Design experiment
(dependent, independent, control)>Materials & Methods> Collection
and Interpretation of Data>Organizing Data>Conclusion>Theory
(stood the test of time)
oCritical thinking
oDeductive reasoning
oInductive reasoning
oCumulative and shows adaptability
Ironic Science (non-testable but science based)
oLife elsewhere in the Universe?
oNuclear winter/meteor that caused extinction of the dinosaurs
oGlobal warming
oNon-random/systemic error
Human error
Fudging data
Personal bias
oError intrinsic to instruments: random error
Levels of Biological Organization
Biosphere: which includes all of the environments on this planet
oEcosystem: biotic and abiotic (living vs physical components)
oCommunity: all organisms in the system
oPopulation: all interbreeding individuals of one species
Organism: individual living entity
oOrgan systems
Cell: unit of living matter bounded by membrane
oMacromolecules (carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
oMolecules (atoms with unique chemical properties)
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oAtom (small unit of matter with same atomic number)
oSubatomic (protons, neutrons, electrons)
Biological Classification
Kingdom is the highest rank: Archaea & Bacteria (Monera), Protista,
Fungi, Animalia, Plantae
Domains: Eubacteria (true bacteria) , Archaea (ancient bacteria),
Eucaryota (modern eukaryotes)
Eubacteria: single celled without nuclei, akin to prokaryotes but look
similar to Archaea
Archaea: single celled organisms that thrive in extreme environments
Eukaryota: all life based upon cells with nuclei (plants, animals, fungi,
and single celled protists)
Archaea are more similar to Eukaryota
Carl Woese: responsible for finding new divisions of life, all cells
contain ribosome, compared rRNA in all different species, the rRNA
sequences changed over time can indicate divergence but everything
started with LUCA
Monera: includes bacteria and Archaea, and are the most successful
organisms, single celled
Protista: algae/protozoans, unicellular eukaryotes
Plantae: plants, photosynthesis
Fungi: mold, yeast, organisms that decompose dead
Unifying Concepts of Life
Cell Theory (cell doctrine)
oThe first cells were described by Hooke when he looked at a
cork, and then Leewenhoek developed a microscope
oOken claimed that all organisms were made of cells, but Cell
Theory wasn’t official until Schleiden and Schwann in 1839
oVirchow: all cells come from pre-existing cells
All living things are composed of cells
Cells come from preexisting cells
oRedi (suggested spontaneous generation from
broth). Pasteur disproved this by using the swan
neck flask
All energy flow of life occurs within cells
All living cells have DNA
Many shapes and sizes of cells
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