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Lecture 14

BIL 250 Lecture 14: ch2 part 4

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BIL 250

Anaphase: shortest stage of mitosis Sister chromatids of each chromosome, held together only at their centromeric regions, disjoin Disjunction: pulled to opposite ends of the cell Shugoshin must be deraded Cohesin complex holding the centromere region of each sister chromosome is then cleaved by separase Sister chromatids of each chromosome are pulled toward the opposite poles of the cell Daughter Chromosomes: each migrating chromatid Dependent of the kinetochore spindle fiber attachment for movement Migration due to activity of a series of specific molecules called motor proteins found at several locations within the dividing cell Molecular Motors: use the energy generated by hydrolysis of ATP Shorten the spindle fibers Centromeres of each chromosome appear to lead the way during migration, with the chromosome trailing behind Location of centromere determines the shape of the chromosome during separation Providing each subsequent daughter cell with an identical set of chromosomes Telophase: final stage of mitosis 2 sets of chromosomes are present in the beginning cytokinesis essential if two new cells are to be produced from one Cell Plate: synthesized and laid down across the region of the metaphase plate in plant cells More regularly shaped and structurally rigid Middle Lamella: where the cell plate gets laid down Cell Furrow: complete constriction of the cell membrane; characteristic of newly divided cells Reversal of events that occurred during prophase Chromosomes begin to uncoil and become diffuse chromatin once again, while the nuclear envelope reforms around them Cell enters interphase at the completion Cell Cycle Regulation and Checkpoints Cell cycle is governed by a genetically regulated program that has been conserved throughout evolution Cell Division Cycle (CDC) Mutations: mutations that exert an effect at one or another stage of the cell cy
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