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Lecture 1

BIL 360 Lecture 1: sensory processes 1

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BIL 360
Dubois Adrienne

Sensory Processes ❖ Olfaction in Mammals ➢ Layer of epithelium in bipolar neurons. ➢ Cilia that extend in mucuous to help protect the cells, which have high turnover rate ▪ Noxious or toxic chemicals ▪ Molecules detected by bipolar neurons ➢ Olfactory bulb of brain ➢ Nasal epithelium – walls of this epithelium where the receptor cells are housed and oderant melcules are bound to the sensory cilia ❖ Odorant molecules diffuse to GPCRs of sensory cell membrane ➢ Bind to receptor proteins to a membrane of a cell ➢ Variations of amino acid sequence that will determine what ligand can bind there ❖ Retina contains a network of photoreceptors and neurons ➢ Horizontal cels, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells ➢ In invertebrates it is inverted ▪ Growing out from central nervous system into the eyes the photoreceptor cells are located further back before it can stimualt ethe glial cells at the back of the retina which will then transmit ▪ Molluscs do not have this inverted retina ▪ Leads to blind spot in visual field where all of the connections are connected we do not have any photoreceptor cells ▪ The other eye can make up for this blind spot ➢ High acuity and high concentration of photoreceptor cells ➢ Tightly packed cones and no rods in humans ❖ Rods and Cones ➢ Highest visual acuity is composed of tightly packed cones ➢ Differ in terms of how sensitive they are to different light conditions ➢ Rods are long and thin ▪ Multiple will connect together to one bipolar cell ▪ Sensitive to low light conditions ➢ Cones are bit shorter and have a tapered shape on the surface of the cell ▪ Same photpigment but have different ▪ Allow for colored vision ▪ Different cones are sensitive to different lights ▪ Flattened stacked membranes which is where we find the photopigments
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