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NUR 306 Lecture Notes - Gestational Diabetes, Blood Sugar, Oxidative Stress

2 pages18 viewsSummer 2013

Course Code
NUR 306
Linda Parker

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Health/fitness depend on interrelated factors
genetic traits: 19%
environmental factors: pollution, radiation, bicycles/walking 20%
lifestyle factors: availability of nutritious food 51%
health care: 10%
nutritional deficiency diseases like rickets(vitamin d deficiency) and pellagra (vitamin
b deficiency) were once common
now all baby formula in the US has to meet certain specifications (iron
now, life-style related chronic diseases are major causes of death (heart diseases,
cancers, diabetes, stroke, Alzheimer's disease)
chronic means long-term (may take 25/30 years to manifest), not curable, can be
Diabetes (diabetes mellitus)
abnormal glucose utilization and high blood glucose levels
type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes
Hypertension (high blood pressure)
Stroke (cerebral vascular accident)
Alzheimer's Disease
Leading cause of death in US is heart diseases, followed by cancers and stroke
Dietary risk factors are associated with development of chronic inflammation and
oxidative stress (at the cellular level)
ex: heart disease, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, cancer,
bones become fragile and susceptible to fracture due to a loss of
calcium/phosphorous and other minerals, impacted by bone building nutrients
(vitamin d, involved in deposition and metabolism of calcium in bone crystals)
Free radicals
steal electrons from nearby molecules
can damage lipids, proteins, DNA by altering their chemical functions
foods that decrease stress: fruits/veggies, whole grains, nuts etc
foods that increase stress: process, high-fat, baked etc
americans tend to choose energy-dense, nutrient-poor, pose high risks to
health, high in calories, low in fiber, fruits/ veggies
chronic diseases prevalent in the United States have roots in dietary changes over past
humans used to survive by hunting
now gathering food is not strenuous, feasts not followed by famine
now food is very processed to add longevity
disease rates change as countries adopt western diets (life expectancy goes down,
heart disease and cancer rates go up)
japan has longest life expectancy
study: after ww2, japanese who lived in hawaii were studied and contrasted with
japanese living in japan, looked at rate of breast cancer/cardiovascular disease, US
japanese had significantly higher rate
typical japanese diet: less processed food, high in fish, less saturated fats
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