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Lecture

NUR 306 Lecture Notes - Sirloin Steak, Coronary Artery Disease, Dietary Fiber

5 Pages
35 Views
Fall 2013

Department
Nursing
Course Code
NUR 306
Professor
Linda Parker

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Calories and Energy Balance
Body needs energy in 3 categories
basal metabolism: maintain normal body functions while at rest (60-80%)
breathing, heartbeat, body temp, renewal of muscle/bone tissue,
growth, including pregnancy/lactation, to maintain life
men: body weight x 11, women: body weight x 10.1
factors that affect how efficiently body uses calories
physical activity level, muscle mass, height, health status, genetics
physical activity: needed for muscular work, vary on how active you are. if
you're active, 75% of basal metabolic calories, average is 50%, inactive is 30%. also
depends on your height and weight, smaller people will burn less
Issues
People overestimate time in physical activity
diet thermogenesis: needed to digest food (smallest component, 10%)
Energy in Foods **
carbs: 4 calories/gm
protein: 4 calories/gm
fat: 9 calories/gm, most energy dense
alcohol: 7 calories/gm, not considered a food item
Caloric Calculations
given how many gms of carbohydrates, protein, fat
multiply by the appropriate number and add up
will be on exam
*** foods are a combination of all sources of energy (will be asked)
Some foods are composed of just one energy nutrients, most contain various
Lean sirloin steak: 32% protein, 8% fat, 60% water
Caloric Intake Regulations
Body mechanisms encourage regular calorie intake, independent of weight
hungry signal when cells run low on energy
signals from brain, stomach, liver, fat cells indicate satiety
Appetite
urge for pleasure of eating
triggered by smell/sight of food
people resist eating in spite of hunger pains
different from hunger*
Energy Balance
adults maintaining weight are in energy balance
smoking, lean muscle mass, genetic makeup all rev up basal metabolism
Small changes are best
calories don't mean fattening or bad for you
calories are life/health sustaining
Carbohydrates
preferred energy source
used exclusively by brain as energy source
should not be avoided when trying to lose weight
body runs primarily on glucose, simple sugar
polysaccharides
glycogen stores energy in liver, muscles
most of our body's stored energy is in fat
A pound of fat is 3500 calories, more than the glycogen stored in limited
amounts, replenished on a daily basis, for instant energy
fat moves via bloodstream to any cells that need it
feasting state: blood sugar is building up because you've just eaten, insulin is
secreted, drives energy into cells for use. if extra blood glucose is created,
will be stored as fat
fasting state: break down glycogen, if all used up then fat breaks down
Fibers
carbohydrates that are complex, not broken down by digestive enzymes,
removed from the body, (celluose), retained in colon, attract water, prevent fat from
being absorbed, used to prevent constipation, give feeling of fullness
soluble fibers: attract water, beneficial, create softer stool (oatmeal, cilium)
insoluble fibers: bran, celery, apple peel, whole wheat,
know benefits of fiber** (prevents constipation, prevents some fats from being
absorbed, heart healthy, reduce blood cholesterol as much as 10% by eating oatmeal
etc. on a regular basis)
Regulation of Blood Glucose
Insulin: facilitates blood glucose uptake by muscles, stimulates glycogen
synthesis, brings blood sugar levels to normal
Glucagon: triggers the breakdown of liver glycogen to single glucose
molecules
opposing hormones, insulin lowers blood sugar after a meal, glucagon
elevates blood sugar during fasting
Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners
Added sugars: dramatic increase in recent years, leading source is soft drinks,
excessive amounts are linked to obesity, heart disease, nutrient deficiencies, and
dental caries
fix: eliminate soda, dilute fruit juice with water, carbs from unrefined
plant sources, simple sugar should be less than 10% of our calories. in
nyc they banned super size soft drinks, sparked debate b/c should
obesity be treated on the public health level (freedom of speech/
action), prepackaged food has a lot of simple sugar, look at %
Recommended guidelines: 5-10% of carbs
Sugar alcohols (nutritive sweetners): trigger a lower glycemic response, 2/3
kcalories/gm, reduce calories in food items, in gum
us approved nonnutritive sweetners: aspartame, saccharin (sweet n low),
stevia, sucarlose (splenda)
Recommended intakes
Carbs: 45-65% of energy requirement
Fiber: 25-35 grams per day
FDA health claims
fiber grain products, fruits, veggies: reduced risk of cancer
fruits/veggies, grain products w fiber: reduced risk of coronary heart disease
soluble fiber from whole oats: reduced risk of coronary heart disease (reduce
absorption of fat in the gut)
whole grains: reduced risk of heart disease
Gluten Sensitivity
celiak disease: gluten is toxic to the gut (severe form of gluten senstivity)
immune disorder causing malabsorption

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Description
Calories and Energy Balance Body needs energy in 3 categories basal metabolism: maintain normal body functions while at rest (60-80%) breathing, heartbeat, body temp, renewal of muscle/bone tissue, growth, including pregnancy/lactation, to maintain life men: body weight x 11, women: body weight x 10.1 factors that affect how efficiently body uses calories physical activity level, muscle mass, height, health status, genetics physical activity: needed for muscular work, vary on how active you are. if you're active, 75% of basal metabolic calories, average is 50%, inactive is 30%. also depends on your height and weight, smaller people will burn less Issues People overestimate time in physical activity diet thermogenesis: needed to digest food (smallest component, 10%) Energy in Foods ** carbs: 4 calories/gm protein: 4 calories/gm fat: 9 calories/gm, most energy dense alcohol: 7 calories/gm, not considered a food item Caloric Calculations given how many gms of carbohydrates, protein, fat multiply by the appropriate number and add up will be on exam *** foods are a combination of all sources of energy (will be asked) Some foods are composed of just one energy nutrients, most contain various Lean sirloin steak: 32% protein, 8% fat, 60% water Caloric Intake Regulations Body mechanisms encourage regular calorie intake, independent of weight hungry signal when cells run low on energy signals from brain, stomach, liver, fat cells indicate satiety Appetite urge for pleasure of eating triggered by smell/sight of food people resist eating in spite of hunger pains different from hunger* Energy Balance adults maintaining weight are in energy balance smoking, lean muscle mass, genetic makeup all rev up basal metabolism Small changes are best calories don't mean fattening or bad for you calories are life/health sustaining Carbohydrates preferred energy source used exclusively by brain as energy source should not be avoided when trying to lose weight body runs primarily on glucose, simple sugar polysaccharides glycogen stores energy in liver, muscles most of our body's stored energy is in fat A pound of fat is 3500 calories, more than the glycogen stored in limited amounts, replenished on a daily basis, for instant energy fat moves via bloodstream to any cells that need it feasting state: blood sugar is building up because you've just eaten, insulin is secreted, drives energy into cells for use. if extra blood glucose is created, will be stored as fat fasting state: break down glycogen, if all used up then fat breaks down Fibers carbohydrates that are complex, not broken down by digestive enzymes, removed from the body, (celluose), retained in colon, attract water, prevent fat from being absorbed, used to prevent constipation, give feeling of fullness soluble fibers: attract water, beneficial, create softer stool (oatmeal, cilium) insoluble fibers: bran, celery, apple peel, whole wheat, know benefits of fiber** (prevents constipation, prevents some fats from being absorbed, heart healthy, reduce blood cholesterol as much as 10% by eating oatmeal etc. on a regular basis) Regulation of Blood Glucose Insulin: facilitates blood glucose uptake by muscles, stimulates glycogen synthesis, brings blood sugar levels to normal Glucagon: triggers the breakdown of liver glycogen to single glucose molecules opposing hormones, insulin lowers blood sugar after a meal, glucagon elevates blood sugar during fasting Health Effects of Sugars and Alternative Sweeteners Added sugars: dramatic increase in recent years, leading source is soft drinks, excessive amounts are linked to obesity, heart disease, nutrient deficiencies, and dental caries fix: eliminate soda, dilute fruit juice with water, carbs from unrefined plant sources, simple sugar should be less than 10% of our calories. in nyc they banned super size soft drinks, sparked debate b/c should obesity be treated on the public health level (freedom of speech/ action), prepackaged food has a lot of simple sugar, look at % Recommended guidelines: 5-10% of carbs Sugar alcohols (nutritive sweetners): trigger a lower glycemic response, 2/3 kcalories/gm, reduce calories in food items, in gum us approved nonnutritive sweetners: aspartame, saccharin (sweet n low), stevia, sucarlose (splenda) Recommended intakes Carbs: 45-65% of energy requirement Fiber: 25-35 grams per day FDA health claims fiber grain products, fruits, veggies: reduced risk of cancer fruits/veggies, grain products w fiber: reduced risk of coronary heart disease soluble fiber from whole oats: reduced risk of coronary heart disease (reduce absorption of fat in the gut) whole grains: reduced r
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