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Philosophy Lecture 1 on Introduction to Arguments

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University of Miami
PHI 110
Robin Neiman

Introduction to Arguments 8/29/13 1) Find conclusion 2) Locate explicit premises 3) Locate any implicit premises Class Example: Explicit premise: Marijuana is less dangerous than alcohol Explicit premise: Alcohol is legal Implicit premise (not given, have to come up with): Everything less dangerous than alcohol should be legal -------------------------------- Conclusion: Marijuana should be legal Argument Types 1) Deductive Arguments A. Valid or Invalid B. Sound or not sound  A valid argument means that if the premises are true, then the conclusion must be true. It means the argument is in the correct form. (Although the conclusion may be true, the premises might not be true) Example: Premise: I gazed into my crystal ball and determined that there are 27 students in this class Conclusion: There are 27 students in this class Although the conclusion is true, the premise is not true.  A sound argument is a valid argument with true premises. Example of a deductive argument: Premise: It is sunny in Miami Premise: If it is sunny in Miami, I will not have an umbrella. Conclusion: I will not have an umbrella. Validity vs. Truth Validity: A property of arguments Truth: A property of statements  To say that a statement is valid does not make sense logically. That is like
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