Difference between an argument and a statement
argument has a premise and a conclusion, statement is just a claim
Definition of validity
if both the premises and conclusion are true
when is an argument "sound"?
if its valid and the premises are actually true
Deductive Argument: author intends the truth of the premises to guarantee the
Premise: Everyone hates N
Premise: N only hates god
Conclusion: N is God
Premise: Every person who responded to the survey hates N
Premise: N responded to the survey
Premise: N only hates God
Conclusion: N is god
Premise: If the US attacks Syria, they will violate international law
Premise: This would only punish the citizens and not the perpetrators
Conclusion: The US should not attack Syria
Inductive vs. Deductive:
Most attacks in the past have harmed citizens. If it harms the citizens and not
the government, then they shouldn't do it (Inductive)
Basic Definition of "Truth""
A statement is true if and only if the world is the way that the statement
describes the world to be.
Tarski's Disquotational Schema:
"Snow is white" if and only if snow is white
This definition allows for competing theories about what makes a statement true
Killing is wrong if and only if killing is wrong
Killing is wrong if and only if it violates God's law
Killing is wrong if and only if it causes pain
Killing is wrong if and only if killing violates the norms of rationality
Proviso: only meaningful statements are true or false
Colorless green statements sleep furiously
Questions and commands are not true false
Shut the door!
Have you stopped beating your wife yet?
Truth is not a matter of what we know or believe A: Its true that people are reincarnated after they die.
B. That might be true for you but it's not my truth
A: No seriously. I am claiming that you will be reincarnated.
Don't confuse beliefs about what is true with what it takes for something to be true