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Lecture 1

POL 203 Lecture 1: POL203 (Skendaj) class questions (most) and notes

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Political Science
POL 203

IR Notes How to get an A in the class: • Write down all the questions from the ppt • Participate in class • Use the book to learn the terms from the ppt • Attend class • Do the study guides to prepare for exams • Don’t be afraid to ask questions or go to office hours Lecture 1/19: • Causal Theories: hypothesis expressed as “If X happens then Y will be the result.” o Include factors (independent variables) that are believed to influence the outcome (dependent var.) o Inverse correlation (x and y vary in the opposite direction) • Even without hypothesis, political scientists try to identify similarities and diff. to discover patterns • Core Principles for Solving Collective Good Problems o Dominance ▪ Adv: order, stability, predictability ▪ Dis: oppression, resentment o Reciprocity (liberals) ▪ Adv: incentives for mutual cooperation ▪ Dis: downward spirals, complex accounting o Identity ▪ Adv: sacrifice for group, redefine interests ▪ Dis: demonizing an out-group Lecture 1/24 • World Wars: Modern and Total o Changes in military technology shaped the ways in which combatants fought o Both world wars featured controversies over the treatment of civilians ▪ Indiscriminate bombing of cities – not allowed by humanitarian law o Academic disagreements about causes of war ▪ Political ▪ Arms races ▪ International systemic factors • Features of Total War (1914-1918) o Defensive technologies defeated offensive tactics Lecture 1/26 • European Colonialism: Legacies & Consequences o Effects of WWII ▪ Defeat of European powers undermined legitimacy of their colonial rule ▪ UN Charter promised respect for sovereign equality of states • Why did the US go to war in Iraq in 2003? o Effects of neoconservative ideology (Bush admin) o Desire to defend Israel from possible Iraqi attack o Desire to control Iraqi oil wealth o US leaders believed they could win easily and leave quickly • Results of Iraqi Invasion o Increased radical Islamic support o Decreased credibility for United States o Distraction from war in Afghanistan • Afghanistan, Syria, and After o War continues after death of Bin Laden o Cost estimated at more than $100 billion o 1000s of USA, NATO, Afghan civilian deaths o Regional tensions ▪ Pakistan and Afghanistan ▪ Syrian conflict o “Clash of Civilizations”? Lecture 1/31 (Missed lecture) • Neoclassicism says domestic politics matter too. • Offensive realism says what matters is relative power • Anarchy international system has no central government to enforce laws • Security dilemma: one state’s quest for security is often another state’s source of insecurity • Balance of power • Disagreement over which international system is most stable? • Modern realism, however, says that state interests & state behavior are more relevant that human behavior. • Liberalism assumed people are altruistic & help others, also known as idealism. • Offensive realism: o States actively seek to enhance their power position o Ideal position for a state that is a hegemony Lecture 2/2 See lecture questions. Lecture 2/7 Prisoners’ dilemma in relation to IR. Lecture 2/9 Liberals favor absolute gains Lecture 2/28 What we learned from the Iran simulation: Lecture 3/2 • International Orgs: o International Governmental Orgs o International Non Governmental Orgs Lecture Questions 1/17/2017 4:13:00 PM Q: A/n _____ theory is a set of generalizations about political and other realities that seeks to explain causal connections. a. intuitive b. empirical c. normative d. predictive Q: A/n _____ theory is a standard of the correct moral and ethical behavior about how the world should be. a. intuitive b. empirical c. normative d. predictive Q: The statement, “Country A invaded Country B to gain access to B’s mineral resources,” is an expression of a/n _____ theory. a. intuitive b. empirical c. normative d. predictive Q: The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 established the idea of “sovereignty” in European international politics, a term that means: a. the system of a hereditary monarch b. the right of subjects to petition a monarch c. the principle of the inviolability of the borders of a state and the activities within d. the principle of the permeability of the borders of a state and the activities within Q: A state’s history, traditions, and political structures are examples of the _____ level of analysis. a. individual b. national attributes c. systemic d. global Q: The ______ ended the Thirty Years’ War. a. Peace of Westphalia b. Peace of Preswick c. Peace of Weserplatte d. Peace of Miharte Q: In July 1914 most people of each of the belligerent states: a. feared the coming of war, because schools had taught anti-militarism b. expected that modern technology would make the coming war long and brutal c. wanted peace and therefore rioted against the mobilization orders d. had nationalist beliefs and patriotic values and as a result wanted war to prove that their nation was best Q: The First World War: a. was characterized by trench warfare and attrition b. began to end in November 1918 with allied advances c. mobilized whole European societies d. all of the above Q: What term best describes the dominance of a particular state in relation to all other states in the international system? a. Empire b. Hegemony c. Sovereign d. Suzerain State Q: Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points included which of the following? a. a call for open diplomacy b. a call for national self-determination c. a call for a supranational assembly of states d. all of the above Q: What key policy was associated with the Truman Doctrine? a. Rapprochement b. Apartheid c. Containment d. Decolonization Q: European decolonization after the Second World War began with: a. France leaving Indochina b. Portugal leaving Mozambique c. the Netherlands leaving Indonesia d. Britain leaving India and Pakistan Q: The text argues that the Cold War: a. for all the threats of global destruction was a period of peace and stability everywhere b. was a time when both the US and USSR ruled their blocs with sets of inflexible rules c. was a time of multi-polarity that caused unparalleled prosperity around the world d. was not “cold” at all for the millions of people who died around the world Q: According to the text, what is ironic about the USA-led 2003 invasion of Iraq? a. Iraq had moved its WMD to Kuwait b. Multilateralism backfired for the Bush Admin c. It was the first time that the US had attacked a state with a democratically elected government d. Iraq was not involved in the September 11, 2001 attacks Q: The ability to get another actor to do what it would not otherwise have done: Q: _____ proposes that the structure of the international system compels states to maximize their relative position Q: The area with no overreaching central authority above the individual collection of sovereign states within which international politics take place is know as _____. Q: Classic realism represents power politics as a result of beliefs about _____. This said, people only act in their own interests. Q: A _____ system is sometimes called a _____. Q: During the interwar period (1919-39) the academic perspective called _____ criticized the _____ perspective, which advocated the League of Nations. Q: Why do states engage in arms races with each other? Q: Why do states reduce their nuclear weapons stockpiles? Q: Why do states tend to collaborate in promoting free trade? Q: T/F interstate wars as a percentage of all wars continue to increase Q: The Gulf War (1990-91) has been used as an example of: a. liberal institutionalism b. collective security c. advocacy networks d. Wilsonian positivism Q: What concept supposes that liberal states will not go to war with one another? a. sovereign equality of states b. balance of power c. democratic peace thesis d. republican constitutionalism Q: What was the primary expression of the Idealist order during the period 1919-1939? a. The League of Nations b. The United Nations c. The Concert of Europe d. The hegemonic influence of the US Q: Which of the following is not considered a key liberal value? a. tolerance b. freedom c. order d. constitutionalism Q: How can liberal theories of IR be distinguished from realism? a. Realism believes people learn from negative historical events, whereas liberalists believe they learn from positive ones. b. Realism is less likely to believe in the unitary-actor assumption than liberal theories. c. Realists see the rules of IR as timeless and unchanging, whereas liberal theorists see the rules of IR as evolving incrementally. d. Realists favor absolute gains, whereas liberals favor relative gains. e. Realists believe in hegemony, whereas liberals do not. Q: Why is the US worried about the Iranian nukes, but not British nukes? Britain is an ally. Q: Early Constructivism drew from critical and sociological theory to demonstrate the effect of ______ structures on world politics. a. normative b. material c. concrete d. authoritarian Q: Most writers who call themselves constructivists argue that _____ make society—and society, in turn, shapes our actions and words. a. our actions and words b. Marx and socialism c. capitalism and material items d. technology and production Q: In contrast to the rise of constructivism in the 1980s, neorealism and neoliberalism were still committed to: a. individualism and materialism b. anarchy and social theory c. individualism and norms d. materialism and structuration Q: Negative peace a. focuses on the underlying reasons for war b. is initiated by the aggressive party to the war c. refers to proxy wars d. refers to the temporary absence of war Q: The process by which a state interacts with the global system of states is called: a. the Delphic process b. the foreign policy process c. the goal-sorting process d. the rational-actor model Q: Politicians have a difficult time running formal bureaucratic agencies because: a. the agencies can be too large and too routinized to easily control b. only lower-level career officials owe loyalty to the politicians c. the power of agencies is based on their proximity to the president d. they are in their positions longer than high-level bureaucrats e. all of the above Q: Many neoclassical realists believe that _____ shape(s) foreign policy, and thus _____. a. domestic political interests… foreign policy is immutable b. state-strengthening nationalism… leaders should drive public opinion c. civic nationalism…. State-subverting nationalism should be eliminated d. domestic political interests… a state’s priorities may change Q: One way in which middle powers can achieve their goals is through being: a. intransigent b. strong advocates of national self-determination c. clear about their sense of distinct identity d. catalysts Q: In undemocratic or authoritarian states, citizens might not have as much to say about what their leaders decide to do in the international system, a. and neither do bureaucratic agencies, thus mitigating the detrimental effect of no public input b. but bureaucratic agencies and elites do have a voice c. but transnational corporations do, often toppling governments that repress the human rights of citizens d. none of the above Q: The rise of nationalism from the late 18 thcentury nationalized this state order, later extending beyond Europe a. thereby organizing global politics on the basis of national self-centralism b. until national self-censorship became prevalent in the developing world c. until the whole world was organized as a series of nation-states d. until the whole world was organized on the principle of the national self- actualization Q: Realists and liberals both advocate the use of sticks as foreign policy tools. An example of this was: a. Danish foreign minister Rasmussen recommending an end to NATO b. the Chiapas uprisings c. US President Wilson pushing that country into WWI d. the drafting of the NPT in 1968 Q: During negotiations between two states, Country A threats Country B with war if B does not concede on the issue. In this case Country A is: a. “steering the ship of state” b. “conducting coercive diplomacy” c. “conducting demagoguery” d. “conducting public diplomacy” Q: When Country A offer Country B material inducements to cooperate, Country A is offering: a. sticks b. fruit c. beans d. carrots Q: Using the attractiveness of a state’s culture as an inducement to gain international cooperation is an example of: a. hard power b. soft power c. zero-sum power d. positive-sum power Q: If a state has a foreign policy that advances its own values and interests and seeks to create an international system based on these values, that state is said to have a: a. promotive foreign policy b. intransigent foreign policy c. prepared packaged response d. coercive diplomacy Q: Name the 5 veto powers at the UN Security Council. Why do these states and not others have veto powers? Q: All of the following are regional IGOs EXCEPT the: a. European Union b. Association of South East Asian Nations c. Southern Cone Common Market d. African Union e. United Nations Q: NGOs include organizations such as: a. Greenpeace and the International Olympic Committee b. Amnesty International and the Organizations of Petroleum Exporting Countries c. the International Red Cross and the European Union d. the International Political Science Association and the United Nations e. the World Trade Organization and the African Union Q: A/An _____ is an authoritative international organization that operates above the nation-state: a. BRICs b. TRIPP c. supranational global organization d. Kantian organization Q: Global governance: a. describes formal and informal processes and institutions b. guide and control the activities of both state and nonstate actors in the international system c. global governance does not mean the creation of a world government d. all of the above Q: The principal mechanism modern states employ to “legislate” international law is _____. a. the International Criminal Court b. the International Court of Justice c. international institutions d. multilateral diplomac
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