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Lecture 2

PSY 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: ExperimentPremium

2 pages22 viewsFall 2018

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY 110
Professor
Roderick Gillis
Lecture
2

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Observation
Develop Theory— explains patterns in data— GOOD THEORY leads to a testable hypothesis
Testable Hypothesis— not scientiﬁc until you design a testable hypothesis and put it to a test
!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!— not testable unless falsiﬁable…!
Test It
!! !If NO!— Modify Hypothesis
! ! If YES— Support Hypothesis (Statistically via T-test— if less than .05, it is signiﬁcant)
!! !! ! **One test does not support a theory, because THEORY’S ARE NEVER PROVEN**
!! !! ! **Theories are designed to!advance our knowledge/ thinking (in medicine,!biology,
technology, etc…)**
Good Theory
! ! Will develop many testable hypotheses
! ! Will develop!“support” for!the theory
METHODS OF RESEARCH
!
!
Remember: Correlation DOES NOT imply Causation!!
**Correlational Studies often have Directionality problems and/or Third Variable problems
True Experiment
Correlational Study
1) Randomly Divide Subjects into two or
more groups
1) Measure two variables
2) Manipulate the Independent Variable — the
variable that is randomly assigned in a true
experiment
2) Calculate the Relationship
3) Measure the Dependent Variable
EX: Mean coffee gp= 75 bpm
EX: Pearson’s correlation= +.90 (Positive=
two variables move together; as one goes up
the other goes up)
! ! ! Mean no Coffee gp= 65bpm
— Correlation is necessary but not signiﬁcant
for causation
May infer that coffee CAUSED an increase in
heart rate
Support for Hypothesis but cannot infer
Causality