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**preview**shows half of the first page. to view the full**2 pages of the document.**Observation

Develop Theory— explains patterns in data— GOOD THEORY leads to a testable hypothesis

Testable Hypothesis— not scientiﬁc until you design a testable hypothesis and put it to a test

!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!— not testable unless falsiﬁable…!

Test It

!! !If NO!— Modify Hypothesis

! ! If YES— Support Hypothesis (Statistically via T-test— if less than .05, it is signiﬁcant)

!! !! ! **One test does not support a theory, because THEORY’S ARE NEVER PROVEN**

!! !! ! **Theories are designed to!… advance our knowledge/ thinking (in medicine,!biology,

technology, etc…)**

Good Theory

! ! Will develop many testable hypotheses

! ! Will develop!“support” for!the theory

METHODS OF RESEARCH

!

!

Remember: Correlation DOES NOT imply Causation!!

**Correlational Studies often have Directionality problems and/or Third Variable problems

True Experiment

Correlational Study

1) Randomly Divide Subjects into two or

more groups

1) Measure two variables

2) Manipulate the Independent Variable — the

variable that is randomly assigned in a true

experiment

2) Calculate the Relationship

3) Measure the Dependent Variable

EX: Mean coffee gp= 75 bpm

EX: Pearson’s correlation= +.90 (Positive=

two variables move together; as one goes up

the other goes up)

! ! ! Mean no Coffee gp= 65bpm

— Correlation is necessary but not signiﬁcant

for causation

May infer that coffee CAUSED an increase in

heart rate

Support for Hypothesis but cannot infer

Causality

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