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Lecture 13

PSY 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Opponent Process, Botulinum Toxin, Cognitive Therapy

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PSY 110

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Chapter 13: Summary
The Components of Emotions
1. Motivation and emotion are closely connected. Emotions often motivate our
2. Emotions are composed of four integral components: cognitive processes,
affect, psychological arousal, and behavioral reactions.
The Range of Human Emotion
3. According to Plutchik’s Emotion Wheel there are eight primary human
emotions, which consist of four pairs of opposites: acceptance and disgust,
fear and anger, surprise and anticipation, and sadness and joy.
Theories of Emotion
4. According to the James-Lange theory, environmental stimuli trigger
psychological responses from the viscera and muscle movements. These
visceral and muscular responses then activate emotional stress.
5. Recent evidence has demonstrated that different emotions are associated
with similar, but not identical, physiological changes. Support for the James-
Lange Theory is reemerging in recent years.
6. The Cannon-Bard theory suggests that internal physiological changes and
muscular responses are not that cause of emotion, but rather that
emotional experiences and physical changes occur simultaneously.
7. The Schachter-Singer theory combines elements from both the James-Lange
and Cannon-Bard theories. Schachter and Singer maintained that emotions
depend on a kind of double cognitive interpretation: We appraise the
emotion-causing event while also evaluating what is happening
physiologically with our bodies.
8. New evidence from the muscle-paralyzing cosmetic drug Botox supports the
decades-old theory about the role of facial feedback in emotional
9. Solomon and Corbit’s opponent-process theory maintains that when a
strong emotional response to a particular stimulus event disrupts emotional
balance, an opponent-process is eventually activated to restore equilibrium
in one’s emotional state. Repeated exposures to stimuli that arouse intense
emotions result in a gradual weakening of the initial emotional reaction as
the opponent process becomes stronger.
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10. Selye’s observation of organisms’ physiological responses to stress led him
to formulate the concept of a general adaptation syndrome (GAS) composed
of three phases: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. A flood of stress
hormones that prepare the body for fight or flight characterizes the alarm
phase. In the resistance stage the body returns to a less aroused state, but
one in which it continues to draw upon resources at an above-normal rate. If
the stress is not alleviated, an organism is likely to enter the third state of
exhaustion in which its body tissues begin to show signs of wear and tear;
and susceptibility to disease increases.
11. Typical cognitive responses to stress include reduced ability to concentrate,
distractibility, impaired performance on cognitive tasks, and a tendency to
be plagued by disruptive or morbid thoughts.
12. Emotional responses to stress include such feelings as anxiety, irritability,
anger, embarrassment, depression, and hostility.
13. A myriad of possible behavioral responses to stress include assertive action
to confront stressors, withdrawal from a stressful situation, and adaption to
the source of stress.
14. Factors that contribute to the stressfulness of a situation include our lack of
control over it, its sudden onset, and a degree of ambiguity that forces us to
spend resource-depleting energy trying to figure out the nature of the
15. Response to stress may be a major contributor to coronary heart disease.
16. Type A people, particularly those who display anger and hostility, are more
prone to CHD than Type B people, who are more relaxed, easygoing, and not
driven to achieve perfection.
17. People who deal with anger by suppressing it and those who exhibit Type A
behavior may be particularly predisposed to develop hypertension.
18. Stress hormones exert a pronounced effect on the immune system’s ability
to share emotions with others.
19. Type D personality is characterized by distress, negative emotions, and an
inability to share emotions with others.
20. Individuals with Type D personality are less likely to survive cardiovascular
disease and cancer.
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