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Chapter 9 Notes

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PSY 260
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Ch. 9: Personality Dynamics: a motivated chain of interrelated psychological events that cross a set of major mental areas to bring about an outcome. Personality dynamics are potentially reversible or modifiable – ways in which the personality systems influence one another or surrounding systems – more specific than structures Personality systems: motives and emotions, mental models, executive-self control, etc. Surrounding Systems: brain, social situations, etc. Micro-Dynamics: a smaller personality dynamic that involves one part of personality influencing another ex. how guilt might interfere with love Dynamic Traits: a class of long-term stable mental patterns related to motives, including such examples as n achievement, sensation-seeking, and the like – can propel a person to initiate dynamics throughout their personality Meso-Dynamics (Mid-Level): a dynamic that crosses two or three major functional areas of personality ex. the influence of motives on emotions Causal Attribution: models of the self and world that are especially focused on what causes a particular behavior, event, or situation. Some people tend to see the world as caused by themselves, others tend to see the world as caused by other people or situations Macro-Level Dynamics: a larger dynamic that crosses all or almost all the many major functional areas or parts of personality ex. dynamics of action Urge: the conscious psychological awareness of a need – usually momentary, ex. Specific bodily functions to eat or sleep Need: state of tension within the individual that can be satisfied by a specific goal such as eating, or being social ex. need for achievement Press: aspects of the environment that elicit needs in a person, ex. having a quiet space that supports studying Murray’s Model: control of personal moves around from need to need Regnant Process: directing/ruling personality at a given point in time – controlling agent is usually a particular need, but needs can conflict Prepotent Needs: take over the actions of personality (become a regnant process) more quickly than other needs (physiological needs) ex. eat/drink/pain/avoidance/safety – followed by safety needs, then high grades Determinant Needs: basic needs which may cause the establishment of secondary needs, as when a person’s desire to be intimate with another person creates a need to behave well toward others as a means to impress that person (can motivate someone to do seemingly less important things) Subsidiary Needs: one need serves another, as when a person tries to do well in school (n for achievement) so as to attain the ultimate goal of impressing others (n for self esteem) Functionally Autonomous: state of a need/motive which, although originally caused by a biological urge, has taken on an independent life of its own ex. need for achievement = need to win a life partner = need for sexual reproduction Need Conflict: different needs may conflict with one another in a given situation ex. need for affiliation, need for achievement – the strongest will win out Personal Strivings: specific activities a person is currently attempting to carry out in order to meet long-term plans/goals ex. appearing attractive, seeking new experiences Conflictual Strivings: a personal striving/plan that meets one set of goals while frustrating another set of goals, ex. when a person who works hard in school to satisfy their needs to achieve, simultaneously thwarts her needs to have fun Ambivalent Strivings: a personal striving that involves a goal that is fraught with problems, ex. striving to be honest, although very desirable, entails many costs (somewhat unpleasant even if a persona achieves it) Need Fusion: a state of several distinct needs that occurs when a person engages in an action that satisfies all the needs simultaneously ex. group projects – need for achievement/affiliation Mood-Congruent Cognition Effect: ideas that match a mood seem more memorable than ideas that mismatch the individuals’ mood ex. a person is sad thinking about war, or a person is happy thinking about winning a prize Mood-Congruent Judgment: judgment of a particular situation shifts to be congruent with one’s current mood ex. in a happy mood, good weather seems more likely Raymond Cattell’s Dynamic Lattice Ergs: basic motives “energy” – lead to sentiments Sentiments: emotional attachments to ideas or activities ex. loving the flag – leads to attitudes Attitudes: connected to the sentiment ex. displaying the flag at your house Automatic Action Tendencies Ideomotor Action: (Carpenter) simply thinking of a physical movement brings it about or increases the likelihood of bringing it about (doesn’t have to be the main focus)
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