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Chapter 6 Notes

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PSY 260
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Chapter 6: Mental Ability: the capacity to carry out a mental tasks, such as solving problems, generating ideas, and similar challenges – to arrive at the desired sort of solution… to work with information to obtain a desired answer Paradox of Measuring Mental Abilities • Favoring the elites – society can reward and promote those with inherited abilities • Favoring a democratic impulse – society can identify those who can learn independent of inherited wealth Marilyn vos Savant • IQ = 228 • Left college – too unchallenging • Highly successful • Married inventor of artificial heart (Jarvik) • Still writes, authored numerous books, succeeded in numerous financial pursuits Intelligence: a type of mental ability involving the capacity to reason abstractly so as to arrive at the proper solution to a problem – similarities, differences, accurate generalizations • Adaption and adjustment o Stern: the general capacity of an individual to adjust • Learning: capacity for knowledge and knowledge possessed (Hennon) • Neural approaches: modifiability of the nervous system (Pinter) Verbal Intelligence as a Mental Ability • Rejected sensory-motor approaches – concentrated on mental functions • Alfred Binet examined what students did in school • Development and the IQ score - Binet and the increase of cognitive intelligence until age 20 o Binet notices his older daughter solved problems better than his younger daughter o Mental age: the age that a person’s mental functioning most resembles o Intelligence Quotient: index of person’s rate of mental growth – any score that reflects an individual’s general intelligence o IQ proposed by Louis Stern – IQ = MA/CA x 100 (mental/chronological age) o Problems with the Rate IQ led to the introduction of the Deviation IQ – developed by David Wechsler – a measure of intelligence, measures deviation from average within a given age-range o Standard Deviation: measure of distance from a group mean o 65% are between 55, 95% between 70 and 145, 99% between 55 and 145 th Major Intelligences: from Mid 20 century • Verbal-Propositional Intelligence: (cool) involves the capacity to reason validly with words and language and to understand the meaning of words and language o Comprehension: if you find a letter with an address on it but no stamp, what should you do? o Picture completion o Arithmetic: how many hours will it take 2 people to do a 4 hour job? o Similarities: how are a computer and car alike? o Digit span: repeat after me… • Performance (perceptual/organizational) Intelligence: (cool) involves perceiving visual patterns, organizing perceptual information in them, and being able to divide the patterns into parts and to reconstruct them o Block design: arrange blocks to form an abstract pattern o Picture completion: what part of the drawing is missing o Object assembly: assemble puzzle pieces o Coding: learn to copy an abstract symbol next to another symbol o Picture arrangement: can you complete the puzzle • Spatial Intelligence: (cool) pertaining to understanding how objects move in space – examining people’s capacity to accurately rotate objects in their minds and identify what the rotated object would look like • Hot intelligences: understanding and reasoning about information or direct, personal, felt significance to the individual o Information in motivational, emotional, or social information of direct importance of concern to the individual o The ability to process and cope with personally meaningful and important information • Emotional intelligence: ability to reason with emotions, and of emotions to enhance thought – capacity to accurately perceive emotions, use them in thinking, understand them, and manage emotional experience o First sustained theory and measure of emotional intelligence – Mayer and Salovey o Popularization of emotional intelligence – Goleman o Huge research endeavor thereafter o Emotions are signals about relationships and related actions o Each emotion means something and operates in a particular way o An emotion is, in some sense, like a piece on a chessboard; each emotion has its own function and set of moves o Four Branch Model of Emotional Intelligence: (Mayer & Salovey)  Managing Emotions – guiding emotions in oneself and others, staying open to feelings  Understanding Emotions – understanding the meanings of emotion words, knowing how and when one emotion changes into another  Using Emotions to Enhance Thought – understanding how emotions relate to other sensations, pairing activities with moods that facilitate them  Accurately Perceiving Emotions – in natural and cultural works, in faces and posture o The Mayer-Salovey-Carusos Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) – Q: a blend of regret, sentimental feelings, love, loss = nostalgia o Correlates with academic performance – better communication/relationships on the job • Social intelligence: understanding social relations and how to carry out social tasks o E. L. Thorndike (1920) – first described social intelligence as “the ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls – to act wisely” o Appeared to be highly correlated so highly with general IQ not to be distinct o Research on social intelligence slowed and was unattended to for much of the 2 ndhalf of the 20 century  Stronger, closer relationships, closer social networks  Fewer fights and conflicts  Less drug/alcohol abuse o Assortive Mating: tendency for people to marry with people who are similar to themselves in particular traits – IQ correlation = .50 • Personal intelligence: accurately understanding oneself and one’s own mental processes and qualities • Practical intelligence: the capacity to understand problems in everyday life that are often left undefined or poorly defined – requires problem solver to formulate the problem himself u
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