ANTH 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Paleomagnetism, Rain Shadow, New World Monkey

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23 Dec 2016
School
Course
Professor
Anth 101 The Human Past
Paleontological-fossil based
Archaeological-artifact based
Advancements in human evolution: bipedalism, tool use, brain expansion
Bipedalism
-occurred in Africa 6 million years ago
-ape ancestry
-perhaps over a dozen hominin species COEXISTED
*remember, Homo sapiens didn’t exist until 2 mya
Natural selection- gradual change of organisms over long periods of time
-Charles Darwin & Alfred Wallace explained how such changes occurred
-Darwin-descent w/ modification & survival of the fittest
-can occur within one species to produce different variations of that species, closely related but
distinct with its own evolutionary direction (majority of these new species become extinct-
survival of the fittest!)
Gradualism-slow, steady accumulation of small changes over a long period of time produces
major changes in descendants of a species
Punctuated equilibrium-rapid, dramatic evolution over short periods of time are separated by
longer periods of little change
Mammals, particularly primates:
humans similar to apes, monkeys, prosimians
monkeys/apes centered in specific parts of the world, whereas humans occupy basically
every part of the Earth
most primates are arboreal aka live in trees
lower primates-characteristics more like older species
upper primates-more adaptive, bigger brain, better senses
apes existed in Africa FIRST, then begins to migrate
-ape population declined during Miocene Era because the climate cooled and
forests declined
-monkeys increased & spread out
*remember: Ice Age aka Pleistocene epoch occurred 1.75 mya to 11,600 years ago
Difference between humans and apes:
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