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Biological Science
BISC 336
Dr.Sarah Liljegren

8/30/13 Beginning at Meiosis II, the dyads are already haploid Dyads are pairs of homologous chromosomesone from each parent Spermatogenesis Goes through Meiosis I and II to produce four equal sperm One primary spermatocyte produces two secondary spermatocytes. (mesisos I) One secondary spermatocyte produces two spermatids. (Meiosis II) One primary spermatocyte results in two secondary spermatocytes, which result in a total of four spermatids Oogenesis Only one product contributes to reproduction 2 polar bodies (unequal distribution of cytoplasm) polar bodies: oocytes that get shorted cytoplasm and don’t become eggs BUT they do contain the haploid number of chromosomes In females, ovum development is arrested in Prophase I in adolescence, and begins again in teens Proteins produced in bound ribosomes go through secretory system OR are membrane proteins Mitochondria: Animal an plant cells Oxidative reproduction (ATP) Chloroplasts: Algal, protozoan, plant Energy made through photosynthesis ***both chloroplasts and mitochondria have their own gnoma. Mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, and so is choroplastial DNA most of the time*** Changes in Mitochondrial genome lead to differences in aging patterns. Gregor Johann Mendel No prior knowledge of genes on chromosomes Determined that u
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