HST 130 Lecture 6: Chapter 6 lecture

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Published on 19 Sep 2018
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Chapter 6 Lecture
Society and Culture in North America, 1700-1760
Colonial American Society
Four major transformations
Social transformation with economy
Consumption patterns
Shifts in American religion
Demography
How did the population of the American colonies change during the 18th century?
It grew population explosion
Population colonial america: EXPLODES from middle to end 17th century
Fastest of any place in the world
IMMIGRATION and NATURAL INCREASE, when people have more children, greater than
replacement level
1700-1760
Much of this growth on the chart, came as a result of immigration that dramatically changed in this
century. We thought about individuals making there way to western hemisphere.
85-90% were english, overwhelming in 17th century
After 1680 fewer than 10% immigrants making there way to north america are english. Goes from
englishmen and women being dwarfed
Came from a variety different european cultures
During the 18th century, large numbers of white immigrants were drawn from all of the following countries
EXCEPT: France
Only european nation that doesn’t send people to colonial america
Other immigrant groups in 18th century: scotland and ireland
75% people who arrive in america were scots, irish, swiss, german
From the table you can tell what a large component from ireland and scotland were, from
immigration.
Each of these groups of white european immigrants go to particular area in north america, clump
together don’t spread out
English were dominant
When scots ireland arrived there moving into more mountain parts, North carolina, Virginia,
pennsylvania, parts of maryland
Pennsylvania Dutch: refers to germans who settled in pennsylvania
There are large german immigrants who make there way to back pennsylvania
Africans
Brought in 1680
It is important to keep in mind large people of number brought in against her will
250,000 to 500,000 ]
18th century
We get more skilled people making there way to america
Craftsmen, merchants
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These people are seen as great promise, opportunity for themselves in colonial america and choose
to immigrant
Immigrant
Reshaping,
Natural increase
¾ is owed to women to giving birth to large amounts of children
Occurs for many reasons, food supply increases, your not facing long starving periods, ensures
population will increase naturally
Diets improve, range you have to eat, so your health improves
People become more acclimated with disease, once you survive disease you stand a better chance
Becomes more familiar with diseases
Medical and childcare
Improved dramatically
Increased chances newborns would survive
Birth rate
Tripled what it is today, most women would have 5-8 children, many children would live in
maturity
Older ones would replace parents
Economy
Between 1680-1670 began to grow
You then have European people other than England showing up
More diverse
Stretched outward, larger region north america in to its orbit
Settlement and economic development pushed further and further to colonial american scots
ireland, german immigrants
International trade
Exploded, brings american goods, colonial people are making elsewhere
Introduce other things
Increase in international trade, more ships traveling these routes over the long course, coming to
dominate colonial american society
Becoming british empire economy, a real linch pin to british trading overall
20% of british trade in 1700
66% of british trade in 1720
Exports in colonies grew from 10% to 20%, market for its own goods
EX: british from other islands, sugar, sugar islands, not much effort to produce food, to feed those
people. Allowing british trade to specialties of different colonies
THIRD
Over the period 1680-1670 american agriculture began to change
Made their living as landholders, tenants, servants, farmers or slaves 75-80% working on land
People of the land, strong continuity
What changed the way agriculture is conducted
Before 1680 was subsistence farming:
You are dedicated to sharing your own families substance, surviving, huge variety of
different types of crops, aiming for family to be self sufficient
Farm more of it became more commercial, crops began famous for selling market
Increasingly farmers, they sold to regional factors, agricultural goods made there way to distant and large
markets, in parts of europe
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Each group made different types european is known for
Timber harvesting, whaling (INCREDIBLY IMPORTANT tremendous source of oil, and for homes) lot of ship
building going on in england
Tobacco being grown in delaware, bunch of ship building around port towns
Places like new york and philadelphia
Iron being shipped to other parts of the world
SOuthern colonies
Chesapeake in south carolina and georgia low country: rice and indigo production, being grown by
enslaved people.
Tobacco being grown by enslaved people
Supplies being extracted
SUbsticale farming - commercial farming
- Most evident in south, 18th century have large planters dedicated to market places
- Farms were smaller in new england and middle colonies
- Based on local and international demand
- Increase efficiency used everyone in there household, women children and men,
FOURTH WAY: merchant rate
- More and more agriculture being produce, became more more important
- 1680-1770 in mainland colonies, there was expansion, extension, specialization
- First it expanded, grew a ton and could find anywhere, everywhere 18th century
- Dominate sea ports
- Philadelphia 230 merchants and more than 300 in 1770’s
- Lead to the extension of merchant trade, increasing networks into backcountry
- In addition to stretching inward, also stretched outward
- Atlantic economy
- With this growth and expansion came specialization, perfect market knowledge gain competitive advantage
- Cloth, sewing material
- Importing from europe, GREAT BRITAIN
- Others focuses on food stuff, bread flour meat grain, coming from north america colonia
- Other merchants focused on importing enslaved people
- Trading slaves, merchant business
Merchants were becoming a more important
Trade economy
John hancock: merchant makes lots of money
Merchants use money importing fancy clothing furniture, machines, displaying their success in open way
Rise of artisan and craftsman
1680-1770 became a commonplace
They had been scarce before
With more money and people greater demand, for finished
Silversmith had no trouble finding customers for their goods
Taylors, shoes men,
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