MUS 103 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Messe De Nostre Dame, Bach Family, George Frideric Handel

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2 Feb 2017
Unit Exam Friday 9/30/16
Chapter 4- Music of the Middle Ages- Culture of the Medieval World:
Agricultural society
Unifying Force?
o Christian Force
o Giotto, Lamentation (c. 1305)
Gregorian Chant/Plainchant/Plainsong/Chant
Monophony, one voice unaccompanied
Slow, and free, fluid
Lower pitch, man singing, step-wise, not a lot of leaps
Latin- language of catholic church
Pope Gregory I- he categorized all of the chants into one specific body of information,
organized them so people could listen in a more organized way.
Why is this important? - earliest notated music that has a continuous performing
tradition- church today- culture we have in faith based situations is due to Gregorian
Syllabic-each word has a pitch, one note each word (Dies Irae) vs. melismatic-a lot of
pitches on each word(Hildegard)
Hildegard von Bingen-
o Mystic, lived most of her life in monastery, was 10th hild of he faily tie to
her church
o German writer, composer, philosopher, visionary
o Wrote monophonic music
o wrote 77 compositions all original text, one melodic line
o flower and a star named after her
o pope named her doctor of the church
o contributions to herbal medicine
Notre Dame Polyphony-
o Written so it would sound good in Notre Dame
Leonine and Perotin
o Organum, organum deplume-two voices, organum triplum-three voices
o Tenor-means to hold, took chant made it tenor, slower- more parts
o Mensural(time) Notation-what notation should look like
o Triple- everything was related to church, father son holy spirit- the trinity vs.
o Texture- Polyphonic (more than one voice), Homophonic (original chant, new
voices on top of it)
Catholic Mass
o Proper vs. Ordinary
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o Wite usi ased o uildig they’e i
Guillamae de Machuat
o Range of vocal parts
o Use of dissonance
o Messe de Notre Dame
Music of the Middle Ages Take 2: Secular Music
Secular Singing
Minstrels/Jongleurs/Goliards (Carmina Burana-latin texts)
o Goliards- very body
Troubadours and Trouvè res
o Southern France and Northern France
o Write in French
o Chanson-songs they wrote about courtly love
o Troubadour Song Countess of Dia (Female)
o Troubadour Song Bernart de Ventadorn
Istuetal suggestios
English Music
o Carol
Popular Song
Strophic Form- all AAAA
Medieval Music Instruments
o Haut-loud & high level of sound(trumpet) vs. bas
o Vielle
The Renaissance
Humanism- humans can do things on their own
Protestant-Reformation, Counter-Reformation
Increased value of education-creation of middle class
Invention of printing
Travel to new lands
Josquin de Prez
One of the greatest composers of Renaissance
Focus on the TEXT
o Points of Imitation
Renaissance Musical Style
Who sang what? - boys/men
o Castrato- castrated, physical difference
Word Painting- sing what the words tell you to do
o Olado Gios, The “ile “a
Renaissance Instrument
Pavane-slow stately dance in duple, couples can hold hands
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Galliard-faster in triple
All renaissance music is mostly improvised
Ornamentation- renaissance and middle age thing
Renaissance Wind Instruments
Shawm- sounds like oboe, ancestor of oboe
Recorder- soprano, alto recorders
Renaissance String Instruments
Viol da gamba (viol)- played between your legs
The Baroque Period and its Principles
Originally pejorative term- baroque was a bad phrase
Coined into common use during 20th century
Basic aesthetics of the Baroque Period
o Elaboration, extravagance. Complexity
o Contrast- emotions go up/down, one thing at one time
o Doctrine of Affections- one person expressing what they want to express
o Rationalism
Renaissance: Michelangelo vs. Baroque: Bernini
o Renaissance less detail just standing there, just figuring out the sculpting of the
o Baroque more detail, killing goliath, standing on something looks ad-more
dramatic looking, more emotion
Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci vs. Baroque: Caravaggio
o Baroque- ANGLES, its gory, faces tell the story
o Renaissance: calm, further back, less detail
Doctrine of Affections or Passions
Charles Le Brun: Horror, Fright, and Sadness… a’t e all thigs at the sae tie
Emotional extremes at one time
Opera Basics
Libretto- first thing you see in opera, words that are in the opera-plot line
Recitative- talkig, tells us hat’s goig o i the plot (conversation) vs. Aria- song you
hear 1-3 people singing, expresses emotional content of the plot
o Unmetered rhythm/ metered rhythm
o Accompanied by sustained chords/more melodic accompaniment
o Speech-like-Recitative/ Song-like-Aria-
o No repetition of text/repetition of text
o Plot/Emotion
o Overture- the beginning, introduction, later on brings up melodic things that
o Chorus- not as big of a deal in Baroque, later on will be important
Baroque Opera
Florentine Camerata- Florence Italy birthplace of opera
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